"Humans are supercooperator because they can use all 5 mechanisms." Martin Nowak
Direct reciprocity, "You help me, and I help you.", game is played several times
Indirect reciprocity, "I help you, somebody helps me.", New node reputation (and gossip)
Spatial selection, Neighbors help each other.
Group selection, Tribes and common goods.
Kin selection, Interaction occurs between genetic relatives
Donor, pays a cost
Recipient, gets a benefit
Measured in fitness, fitness is rate of reproduction, reproduction can be, genetic, cultural
Winning strategy, Generous, Hopeful, Forgiving
situation in which individual rationality leads to collective irrationality!
"These are not a problem that education solves!" Peter Kollock
study of, the tensions between, individual rationality, collective rationality, categorization, possible solutions
market by, deficient equilibrium, there is at least one other outcome in which everyone is better off., no one has an incentive to change their behavior., dominating strategy, best outcome for an individual regardless of what anyone else does.
3 conditions, Meeting in the Future, Identify each Other, Record of past Behavior
Prisoner's Dilemma, Assurance Game, Chicken Game, PD Strategies:, Tit for Tat, Watch Out!, In real world noisy situations can give communication imperfections that will, eventually, create broken decisions., This was a good strategy for a simulated 1 to 1 and "long" term context, and not for a live time 1-N way of life!?, Don't be envious, Encorage Frequent and Durable Interations, Improve recognition and recall, e.g. Reputation Systems, BUT: monitoring can be expensive!!!, Be Generous, In a long term, you'll probably receive it back!
Resources Environments, The Commons, Common Pool Resources (CPR), Design principles to stable CPR, 1. Clearly defined boundaries, 2. Rules to appropriation and provision, 3. Collective-choice arrangements, 4. Effective monitoring, 5. Graduated sanctions, 6.Mechanisms of conflict resolution, 7. Recognized community self-determination, 8. When large: Organization in multiple layers, polycentric approach
Tragedy of Commons, The concern!, a class of human problems, which are "no technical solution problems", Tragedy?, It's essence is not unhappiness, but: the solemnity of the remorseless working of things, Examples, Population Problem, A finite world can support only a finite population, Increase population implies work/energy reduction per human, We want a maximum good per person. But what is good?, ASSUMPTION, decisions reached individually will be the best for society!?, If true: let's wait for the optimum population, if not: need to evaluate the problem!, herdsman seeking to maximize his gain!, freedom of the seas, pollution, Cold war!, What shall we do?, Private Property, Allocate the right to enter, Auction system, Merit, Lottery, First-come first-go, Morality!, Prohibition, probably needs the mediation of administrative law, Social Arrangements, Search to produce responsibility, is needed arrangements that create coercion, Recommended: mutual coercion, agreed upon by the majority, makes people FREE to pursue other goals!, make something increasingly expensive for him to do so
Initialy in the eyes of the Surowieck's book!
Concept:, Crowd can be more then its members!, Act collectively to..., make decisions, solve problems
Types of Problems:, 1-cognition, 2-coordination, 3-cooperation
Conditions:, 1-Diversity, 2-Independency, 3-Decentralization, 4-Agregation
Self-Determination Theoryby Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
the social context can either support or thwart the natural tendencies toward active engagement and psychological growth
About, The interplay between, extrinsic forces acting on persons, intrinsic motives inherent in human nature
Framework, Watchs, Social and Cultural factors, sense of volition and initiative, well-being and performance quality, Variables, autonomy, competence, relatedness
THE Theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET), Intrinsic motivation, studies influences of:, social context, rewards, interpersonal controls, ego-involvement, Organismic Integration Theory (OIT), extrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjection, identification, integration, INTERNALIZATION, Causality Orientations Theory (COT), Autonomy orientacion, Control orientation, Impersonal or amotivated orientation, Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BSNT), Studies influence of psychological well-being and optimal functioning on autonomy, competence, and relatedness, Goal Contents Theory, Studies the intrinsic and extrinsic goals and their impact on motivation and wellness