"Theories, research, and policies have identified the significant role of families, family-school relations, and parental involvement as a way to close the demographic gaps in achievement and maximize students' potential" (p. 740). All types of parental involvement is beneficial to student achievement; however, the types of involvement in which parents engage matter (p. 758).
African American parents have difficulties trusting schools and teachers due to negative past history that included biases and discrimination at school (pgs. 742-743).
Parents' interactions with schools and with their children to promote student success.
NCLB Definition of Parent Involvement
e.g. volunteering at school, communication between parents and teachers, and involvement in school governance- parent conferences.
Engaging in educational activities at home.
Helping with homework provided the most negative gains in achievement.
Includes both home-based and school-based involvement. Active connections and communicaiton, volunteering at school, and assisting with homework.
Includes communicating parental expectations for education and its value or utility, linking school-work to current events, fostering educational and occupational aspirations, discussing learning strategies with children, and making preparations and plans for the future.
Included parental role in exposing their children to educationally stimulating activities and experiences- going to museums etc.
Attitudes and expectations about school and education conveying enjoyment of learning.
Negative relations may be due to parental interference with child's autonomy, parental pressure, and differences in how parents and schools present the material (p 757).
Taking your child to the movies has been shown to have more consistent positive gains in achievement. (p. 757).