P06_KKK-Pd09GRP06

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1. Impact of KKK on politics

1.1. Politicians in the KKK: there is always some falseness to these names because, at this time, there was a subset of KKK members who did not reveal their true identities to society

1.1.1. Hugo Black

1.1.1.1. He was a senator from 1927-37 before becoming a justice in the Supreme Court

1.1.1.2. He, along with some other Southern politicians, used the KKK to gain support for election but would then drop their membership soon after being elected.

1.1.1.3. He was a former member before breaking with the group

1.1.2. Robert Byrd

1.1.2.1. One of the longest serving members of the US government (was both in the Senate and House)

1.1.2.2. In the early 1940s, he was a KKK member - one of the first groups who recognized his talent for leadership

1.1.2.3. In 1943 he claimed to leave the group, but in 1946 he writes a letter to the Grand Wizard that shows his loyalty to the Klan (since then he has said that joining was one of the biggest mistakes of his life)

1.2. Increase in population:: means that the KKK becomes an important part of the voting population

1.2.1. No political party would publicly denounce them

1.3. Clifford Walker: he is elected because his opponent publicly denounces the KKK

1.3.1. Is pro KKK and, during his political stay, ap[[rpves opf

2. Second Phase (PEAK) - Sean and Danny

2.1. Topics of Discussion

2.1.1. Birth of a Nation (Movie)Birth of a Nation opens in New York - Mar 03, 1915 - HISTORY.com

2.1.1.1. Demonized African Americans

2.1.1.2. Glamorized the actions of the KKK

2.1.1.2.1. A force of order to unite the Post-Civil War America.

2.1.1.3. Made the efforts of the Progressive era to give slaves rights and stuff seem lesser.

2.1.2. Goals of 2nd Klan

2.1.2.1. Roman Catholics, Jews, foreigners and organized labor. Also against blacks.

2.1.2.2. The reemergence of the KKK

2.1.3. Organization (How it got started)

2.1.3.1. William J. Simmons

2.1.3.1.1. Led a group of 15 people to Stone Mountain, where they lit a wooden cross aflame and announced the rebirth of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (1915)

2.1.3.2. Atlanta, Georgia

2.1.3.2.1. Advertised by Simmons in Atlanta newspapers as “The World’s Greatest Secret, Social, Patriotic, Fraternal, Beneficiary Order” and a “High Class Order for Men of Intelligence and Character”

2.1.3.3. After newspaper ad tactic:

2.1.3.3.1. Simmons hired Mary Elizabeth Tyler and Edward Young Clarke as promoters for the group (1920)

2.1.3.4. More Growth

2.1.3.4.1. All (bad) publicity = good publicity

2.1.4. Growth https://www.history.com/topics/ku-klux-klan https://www.thenation.com/article/the-second-klan/

2.1.4.1. They attempted to look reputable by doing large scale protests , etc in public.

2.1.4.1.1. Their leaders seemed reputable leading to success. Appeals to more people compared to the vigilante terrorist groups that were the predecessors and the group that is to come.

2.1.4.2. Also Growth from redscare, communism = bad

2.1.4.2.1. Bolshevik Revolution of 1917

2.1.4.3. The KKK used nationalism to gain the favor of the people of the middle class and lower.

2.1.4.3.1. Also spurred by the uhh influx of immigrants into the uhh work force.

2.1.4.4. Romanticized the old practices of the South

2.1.4.4.1. Their practices were "normalized" by the integration of their practices into the everyday life of an American.

2.1.4.4.2. They hide it in the fun aspect of the seemingly innocent practices.

2.1.4.4.3. They boosted recruitment by pitching their own baseball team.

2.1.4.5. The KKK had a economical hold on the Country as well as a political hold.

2.1.4.5.1. Local Klavern of Madison, Wisconsin advertised themselves as , "the Loyal Businessmen’s Society."

2.1.4.5.2. the Southern Publicity Association gained about 80% of any revenue pulled from new members; therefore, they supported the expansion of the KKK

2.1.5. Urbanization

2.1.6. Women in KKK

3. Third Phase: Seung Joo and Matthew

3.1. Ideology

3.1.1. After World War II, (starting from 1940s) the third phase began in order to oppose the civil rights movement. Often in smaller groups, wore similar outfits as previous phase. No formal connection to the previous phase.

3.1.1.1. Goal: To preserve segregation between the races. (in fear of being "replaced" in society?)

3.1.1.2. Belief in superiority of white protestant Americans that are native born to America.

3.2. Events

3.2.1. Revived at North Carolina 1963

3.2.2. Near Massacre in Plymouth, North Carolina

3.2.2.1. Klansmen armed themselves with automatic rifles and planned to attack a Civil Rights march.

3.2.2.1.1. They planned to roadblock major roads in and out of Plymouth with Klansmen armed with machine guns, Korean War veterans who knew what they were doing.

3.2.2.1.2. Then, a group of Klan fighters planned to go in and "Clean Out" the African American communities in Plymouth.

3.2.2.1.3. Although he didn't know about the Klan's plan, President Johnson put an army troop at Fort Bragg on alert because he heard about the high tensions in Plymouth.

3.2.2.2. The attack and march were both called off at the last minute.

3.2.2.2.1. Bob Jones, a leader in the Carolina Klan, called off the attack because he thought it would be damaging to the Klan as a public membership organization.

3.2.2.3. African Americans in the town who were organized the march were fearful in going about they're everyday lives. They asked for protection when they were going home at night, however, the people they thought were protecting them actually attacked them

3.2.3. The KKK carried out many bombings of African American homes in the South in the 1950s.

3.2.3.1. They did this to try to resist social change and African Americans who were trying to improve their lives.

3.2.3.2. There were so many bombings in Birmingham that the city became known as Bombingham.

3.2.3.3. Sometimes, the bombings were calculated and carried out against social activists, however, some bombings were just random acts of violence.

3.2.3.4. Some of the bombers in famous cases were not convicted until years later, and two of the perpetrators in the 16th Street Baptist Church bombings were not convicted until the early 2000s.

3.3. Resistance

3.3.1. Violence committed (bombings, beatings, etc) by the KKK emboldens the Civil Rights movement

3.3.2. JFK claimed civil rights was a moral cause. he was assassinated and Johnson became president

3.3.2.1. Johnson also passed the Civil Rights act 1964, although no one expected him to do so because he was a southern democrat.

3.3.2.1.1. President Lyndon Johnson's speech 1965: condemn KKK

3.3.3. Martin Luther King's I have a Dream Speech was the peak of civil rights movement. Note that his house was bombed by these hate groups.

3.3.3.1. Selma to Montgomery march 1965: Klansman fail to assassinate Martin Luther King. Bloody Sunday: attack on peaceful civil rights protest by state troopers. This increased sympathy of white moderates to civil rights movement

4. First Phase (small background) - Isabela

4.1. Ku Klux Klan: derived from the greek word "kyklos" - meaning circle - and the Scottish-Gaelic word "clan" (mainly chosen for the sake of alliteration)

4.2. Formed as a social club for Confederate soldiers

4.3. General Nathan Bedford Forrest: KKK's first grand wizard

4.3.1. He is a decorated Confederate general from the Civil War who joins the KKK in 1867

4.3.2. Initially, their main goal was to reverse the effects of Reconstruction (of trying to assimilate AAs into US society)

4.3.3. 1869: Forrest leaves the KKK because he does not like the violent tendencies that the group begins to adopt

4.4. First Phase: breaks up because of increased government involvement - they gradually fade out of existence

4.5. Makeup of the KKK

4.5.1. Invisible Empire: another name for the KKK

4.5.2. Grand Wizard: the national head of the KKK

4.5.3. Grand Dragon: the leader of their respective Realms (the KKK term for states)

4.5.4. Grand Giants: the leaders of the provinces (the KKK term for smaller counties - they governed over less space and people than the Grand Dragons)

5. =-