Intelligence

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Intelligence by Mind Map: Intelligence

1. Definition - the ability to process information quickly and adapt to new situations.

1.1. Components of Intelligence

1.1.1. neurological efficiency

1.1.1.1. a person's ability to process information quickly

1.1.2. adaptive

1.1.2.1. intelligent individuals are able to adapt to new situations

1.1.3. culture

1.1.3.1. varying cultures value different aspects of intelligence

1.1.4. prior knowledge / experience

1.1.4.1. the more experience an individual has, the more quickly they will be able to process information

1.1.5. environment

1.1.5.1. children raised in stimulated homes are believed to have higher IQs

2. Critiques about the concept of intelligence

2.1. Traditional IQ tests

2.1.1. measurement: many feel IQ tests measure abilities associated with school achievement instead of true intelligent abilities

2.1.2. context: the use of IQ tests has been debated as they used to be the sole means for identifying special education students

2.1.3. culture: IQ tests measure abilities that are valued only in the mainstream American culture

2.1.4. practice: priority has been placed on current IQ instead of increasing development

2.2. Gardner's multiple intelligences

2.2.1. many educators esteem Gardner's theory, but his view is discredited by many psychologists

3. How children acquire intelligence

3.1. Environment

3.1.1. Home Life / Parenting Practices

3.1.1.1. research suggests children who are read to frequently have higher reading achievement

3.1.2. Early Nutrition

3.1.2.1. severe malnutrition can negatively affect neurological development

3.1.3. Toxic Substances

3.1.3.1. children exposed to toxic substances can have a negative neurological impact

3.1.4. Early Intervention

3.1.4.1. at-risk children who are exposed to preschool programs have long term cognitive benefits

3.1.5. Formal Schooling

3.1.5.1. children who do not attend school regularly have lower IQs than children who attend school on a regular basis

3.2. Genetics

3.2.1. neurological efficiency

3.2.2. Twin Studies

3.2.2.1. study found that twins have similar IQs

3.2.3. Adoption Studies

3.2.3.1. study found twins raised in different homes still had similar IQs