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Attachment by Mind Map: Attachment

1. Harlow's Monkeys

1.1. Babies researched in isolation- some kept for 3 months, 6, 9 and 1 year. When put back with others: babies scared of other monkeys, unable to communicate, self mutilation, rocking compulsively. Conclsion- permenantly damaging

1.2. Reared with surrogate mothers- 8 separated at birth put in cage with 2 mothers- wire and cloth, four get milk from wire and 4 from cloth. Both spent more time with cloth, if a scary object placed in room goes to cloth for comfort

2. Bowlby's definition

2.1. Lasting psychological connectedness between human beings 1969

2.2. Attachment can be understood with evolutionqry context - safety and security

2.3. Bowlby suggested monotropy, the primary attachment is a prototype for all future relationships so distruption can have severe consequences

2.4. 0-5 years is critical period, if not attachments formed child will suffer developmental consequence eg reduced intelligence

3. Behaviours

3.1. Children- seeking proximity when upset or threatened

3.2. Adults- responding sensitively and appropriately

4. Behavioural theory

4.1. The child becomes attached to the mother because she fed the infant

4.2. Counteracted- Bowlby observed children are very distressed when separated from mothers even when fed by others

4.3. Learn through classical conditioning- associate feeder with comfort. Also crying can bring desirable reaponses- operant conditioning learn to repeat this to get what they want

5. Stages

5.1. Schaffer and Emerson 1964 studied 60 babies at monthly intervals for 18 months ( in their own home, and a regular pattern was identified

5.2. Asocial 0-6weeks many stimuli social and non produce favourable reaction

5.3. Indiscriminate attachments 6-7 months enjoy human company and respond equally to any care giver

5.4. Specific attachment 7-9months looks to particular people for security, shows fear of strangers and separation anxiety

6. The theory originated with Bowlby who was a psychiatrist treating children

7. Lorenz's imprinting theory

7.1. 1935- took half of gooses eggs, pretended to quack when they hatched. Found they follow first moving object they see in 12-17 hour period (imprinting)

7.2. Consequences of Imprinting- short term survival an long term, if no attachment in 32 hours unlikely one will ever occur. It cannot be reversed or imprint on anything else