Intelligence comprises of both a single, pervasive reasoning ability (general factor) that is used on a wide variety of tasks and number of narrow abilities (specific factors) involved in executuing tasks.
Two distinctly different components of genral intelligence., Fluid Intelligence: Ability to aquire knowledge quickly and adapt to new situations., Crystallized Intelligence: knowledge and skills they have accumulated from their experiences and schooling.
People have several more specific abilities, or multiple intelligences, that are relatively independent of one another., Linguistic intelligence: Ability to use langauge effectively., Logical-mathematical intelligence: Ability to reason logically, especially in mathematics and science., Spatial intelligence: Ability to notice details of what one sees and to imagine manipulate visual objects in one's mind., Musical intelligence: Ability to create, comprehend, and appreciate music., Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: Ability to use one's body skillfully., Interpersonal intelligence: Ability to notice subtle aspects of other people's behaviors., Intrapersonal intelligence: Awareness of one's own feelings, motives, and desires., Naturalist intelligence: Ability to recognize patterns in nature and differences among natural objects and life-forms.
Intelligent behavior involves an interplay of three factors, all which may vary from one occasion to the next., Environmental context: In which the behavior occurs., The way in which one's prior experiences are brought to bear on a particular task., Cognitive processes required by the task
Intelligence may be partly an inherited characteristic.
Environmnetal conditions, including home environment , nutrition, toxic substances, enriching preschool programs, and formal schooling can have a significant influence on intelligence and IQ scores.
Family income, occupation, parental behaviors, and level of education also play a role in children's intelligence.