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Unit 2 - Biochemistry - Sam, Brodie & Mary by Mind Map: Unit 2 - Biochemistry - Sam, Brodie & Mary
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Unit 2 - Biochemistry - Sam, Brodie & Mary

Definition - Biochemistry is the chemistry of living matter.

Atom

-Smallest and most basic unit of matter. -Subatomic particles make up atoms (protons, neutrons, and electrons)

Nucleus

- Center of atom - Contains protons and neutrons

Proton

Neutron

Electron

-Negatively charged particle (-) -In constant motion around nucleus.  

Element

Pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom.

Chemical Compound

A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.

Chemical Bonds

Ionic Bonds

Formed when one or more electrons are transferred form one atom to another.

Ions

Covalent Bonds

Forms when electrons are shared between atoms. If the atoms share 2 electrons, the bond is called a single covalent bond. Sometimes atoms share 4 electrons and forms a double bond. In a few cases, atoms can share 6 electrons and form a triple bond.

Van der Waals Forces

When molecules are close together, a slight attraction can develop between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules. Intermolecular forces of attraction.

Polymers

-Large organic molecules. -Formed when monomers link together -Also known as macromolecules -very big  

Subunit

Monomers

Types

Proteins

Lipids

Carbs, Types (Saccharides), Monosaccharides, Glucose, Found in, Honey, Sports drinks, Fructose, Found in, Fruits, Corn syrup, Galactose, Found in, Milk, Disaccharides, Sucrose, Found in, Table sugar, Maltose, Found in, Grains, Lactose, Found in, Milk, Polysaccharides, Starch, Found in, Potatoes, Grains, Plants, Cellulose, Found in, Plants, Glycogen

Nucleic acids

Organic Chemistry

The study of carbon compounds.

Carbon

-4 valence electrons -can form 4 covalent bonds by sharing electrons. -Carbon and Hydrogen make up compounds called hydrocarbons. -Carbon based molecules make up most of a cell along with water.

Types of Reactions/processes

Dehydration Synthesis

-The process of linking monomers together. -a.k.a condensation

Hydrolysis

-The process used to break down large polymers into smaller monomers. -Involves adding a molecule of water in order to break bonds.

Chemical Reactions

Exothermic RXN

Endothermic RXN

Isomers

-Elements with the same chemical formula but different structure.

The Water Molecule

-The water molecule is neutral. -The oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge and the hydrogen end of the molecule has a slight positive charge. -It is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.

Hydrogen Bonds

-Cohesion- an attraction between molecules of the same substance. -Adhesion- an attraction between molecules of different substances.

Solutions and Suspensions

-Mixture- a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined.

Solutions

-All the components of a solution are evenly distributed throughout the solution.

Solute

Solvent

Suspensions

-Suspensions- mixtures of water and nondissolved material.

Acids, Bases, and pH

The pH Scale

-pH Scale- a measurement system devised by chemists to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.

Acids

-Acid- any compound that forms H+ ions in solution. -Acidic solutions contain higher concentration of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values below 7.

types, amino acids, central carbon, nucleic acids, DNA, chromosomes, RNA

Bases

-Base- a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH- ions) in a solution. -Basic, or alkaline, solutions contain lower concentration of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values above 7.

Buffers

-Buffers- weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.

Enzymes

-Biological catalysts that jump start cemical reactions (RXNS) by decreasing Ea needed to get the RXN to go. Ea= Energy needed to start a chem. RXN. a.k.a Activation Energy.     -What many proteins act as -Also called, "Biological catalysts"

Active Site

-Where the substrate fits or binds into an enzyme.