Definition - Biochemistry is the chemistry of living matter.
-Smallest and most basic unit of matter. -Subatomic particles make up atoms (protons, neutrons, and electrons)
- Center of atom - Contains protons and neutrons
-Negatively charged particle (-) -In constant motion around nucleus.
Pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom.
A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred form one atom to another.
Forms when electrons are shared between atoms. If the atoms share 2 electrons, the bond is called a single covalent bond. Sometimes atoms share 4 electrons and forms a double bond. In a few cases, atoms can share 6 electrons and form a triple bond.
When molecules are close together, a slight attraction can develop between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules. Intermolecular forces of attraction.
-Large organic molecules. -Formed when monomers link together -Also known as macromolecules -very big
Carbs, Types (Saccharides), Monosaccharides, Glucose, Found in, Honey, Sports drinks, Fructose, Found in, Fruits, Corn syrup, Galactose, Found in, Milk, Disaccharides, Sucrose, Found in, Table sugar, Maltose, Found in, Grains, Lactose, Found in, Milk, Polysaccharides, Starch, Found in, Potatoes, Grains, Plants, Cellulose, Found in, Plants, Glycogen
The study of carbon compounds.
-4 valence electrons -can form 4 covalent bonds by sharing electrons. -Carbon and Hydrogen make up compounds called hydrocarbons. -Carbon based molecules make up most of a cell along with water.
-The process of linking monomers together. -a.k.a condensation
-The process used to break down large polymers into smaller monomers. -Involves adding a molecule of water in order to break bonds.
-Elements with the same chemical formula but different structure.
-The water molecule is neutral. -The oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge and the hydrogen end of the molecule has a slight positive charge. -It is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
-Cohesion- an attraction between molecules of the same substance. -Adhesion- an attraction between molecules of different substances.
-Mixture- a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined.
-All the components of a solution are evenly distributed throughout the solution.
-Suspensions- mixtures of water and nondissolved material.
-pH Scale- a measurement system devised by chemists to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
-Acid- any compound that forms H+ ions in solution. -Acidic solutions contain higher concentration of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values below 7.
types, amino acids, central carbon, nucleic acids, DNA, chromosomes, RNA
-Base- a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH- ions) in a solution. -Basic, or alkaline, solutions contain lower concentration of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values above 7.
-Buffers- weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.
-Biological catalysts that jump start cemical reactions (RXNS) by decreasing Ea needed to get the RXN to go. Ea= Energy needed to start a chem. RXN. a.k.a Activation Energy. -What many proteins act as -Also called, "Biological catalysts"
-Where the substrate fits or binds into an enzyme.