edX - AP® Psychology - Part 2: How the Brain Works

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edX - AP® Psychology - Part 2: How the Brain Works by Mind Map: edX - AP® Psychology - Part 2: How the Brain Works

1. Part 1: Neuroanatomy, Neural Transmission, and the Endocrine System

1.1. Readings: OpenStax Psychology: Chapter 3 Introduction; Chapter 3, Sections 3.2 - 3.5.

1.1.1. 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

1.1.1.1. The nervous system is composed of two basic cell types: glial cells (also known as glia) and neurons.

1.1.1.2. NEURON STRUCTURE

1.1.1.2.1. 100 billion strong at birth.

1.1.1.2.2. The neuron is a small information processor, and dendrites serve as input sites where signals are received from other neurons.

1.1.1.2.3. The synapse is a very small space between two neurons and is an important site where communication between neurons occurs.

1.1.1.3. NEURONAL COMMUNICATION

1.1.1.3.1. membran potential

1.1.1.3.2. resting potential

1.1.1.3.3. threshold of excitation

1.1.1.3.4. reputake

1.1.1.4. NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND DRUGS

1.1.1.4.1. Psychoactive drugs can act as agonists or antagonists for a given neurotransmitter system.

1.1.1.4.2. Neurotransmitters

1.1.2. 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System

1.1.2.1. central nervous system (CNS)

1.1.2.1.1. Brain & spinal cord

1.1.2.2. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)

1.1.2.2.1. somatic nervous system

1.1.2.2.2. autonomic nervous system

1.1.3. 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord

1.1.3.1. The brain is a remarkably complex organ comprised of billions of interconnected neurons and glia. It is a bilateral, or two-sided, structure that can be separated into distinct lobes.

1.1.3.2. THE SPINAL CORD

1.1.3.2.1. what connects the brain to the outside world.

1.1.3.2.2. Some sensory messages are immediately acted on by the spinal cord, without any input from the brain.

1.1.3.3. THE TWO HEMISPHERES

1.1.3.3.1. cerebral cortex

1.1.3.3.2. What we do know is that the left hemisphere controls the right half of the body, and the right hemisphere controls the left half of the body.

1.1.3.3.3. The two hemispheres are connected by a thick band of neural fibers

1.1.3.3.4. Much of what we know about the functions of different areas of the brain comes from studying changes in the behavior and ability of individuals who have suffered damage to the brain.

1.1.3.4. FOREBRAIN STRUCTURES

1.1.3.4.1. The two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are part of the forebrain, which is the largest part of the brain.

1.1.3.4.2. The cerebral cortex

1.1.3.4.3. Lobes of the Brain

1.1.3.4.4. Other Areas of the Forebrain

1.1.3.5. MIDBRAIN AND HINDBRAIN STRUCTURES

1.1.3.5.1. midbrain

1.1.3.5.2. hindbrain

1.1.3.6. BRAIN IMAGING

1.1.3.6.1. Techniques Involving Radiation

1.1.3.6.2. Techniques Involving Magnetic Fields

1.1.3.6.3. Techniques Involving Electrical Activity

1.1.4. 3.5 The Endocrine System

1.1.4.1. The endocrine system consists of a series of glands that produce chemical substances known as hormones.

1.1.4.1.1. Like neurotransmitters, hormones are chemical messengers that must bind to a receptor in order to send their signal.

1.1.4.1.2. hormones are secreted into the bloodstream and travel throughout the body, affecting any cells that contain receptors for them.

1.1.4.2. Hypothalamus & Pituitary gland

1.1.4.2.1. Hormones are involved in regulating all sorts of bodily functions, and they are ultimately controlled through interactions between the hypothalamus (in the central nervous system) and the pituitary gland (in the endocrine system).

1.1.4.3. MAJOR GLANDS

1.1.4.3.1. pituitary gland

1.1.4.3.2. thyroid gland

1.1.4.3.3. adrenal glands

1.1.4.3.4. pancreas

1.1.4.3.5. gonads

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1.3. LECTURES

1.3.1. Lecture 1 - Biopsychology as a Discipline

1.3.2. Lecture 2 - The Neuron

1.3.3. Lecture 3 - The Resting Membrane Potential

1.3.4. Lecture 4 - Postsynaptic Potentials

1.3.5. Lecture 5 - The Action Potential

1.3.6. Lecture 6 - Neural Transmission

1.3.7. Lecture 7 - The Nervous System

1.3.8. Lecture 8 - The Central Nervous System

1.3.9. Lecture 9 - The Endocrine System

2. Part 2: Genetics, Evolutionary Psychology, and Behavior

2.1. Readings: OpenStax Psychology: Chapter 3, Section 3.1.

2.1.1. 3.1 Human Genetics

2.1.1.1. Psychological researchers study genetics in order to better understand the biological basis that contributes to certain behaviors.

2.1.1.2. Charles Darwin

2.1.1.2.1. the theory of evolution by natural selection

2.1.1.3. evolutionary psychologists & behavioral geneticists

2.1.1.3.1. Whereas evolutionary psychologists focus on universal patterns that evolved over millions of years, behavioral geneticists study how individual differences arise, in the present, through the interaction of genes and the environment.

2.1.1.4. GENETIC VARIATION

2.1.1.4.1. Chromosomes are long strings of genetic material known as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

2.1.1.4.2. Genes

2.1.1.4.3. genotype

2.1.1.4.4. Phenotype

2.1.1.4.5. traits

2.1.1.4.6. mutation

2.1.1.5. GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS

2.1.1.5.1. we also exist in an environment that is incredibly important in determining not only when and how our genes express themselves, but also in what combination.

2.1.1.5.2. Range of reaction

2.1.1.5.3. genetic environmental correlation

2.1.1.5.4. epigenetics

2.1.1.6. SUMMARY

2.1.1.6.1. Genes are sequences of DNA that code for a particular trait. Different versions of a gene are called alleles—sometimes alleles can be classified as dominant or recessive. A dominant allele always results in the dominant phenotype. In order to exhibit a recessive phenotype, an individual must be homozygous for the recessive allele. Genes affect both physical and psychological characteristics. Ultimately, how and when a gene is expressed, and what the outcome will be—in terms of both physical and psychological characteristics—is a function of the interaction between our genes and our environments.

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2.3. LECTURES

2.3.1. Lecture 1 - Nature vs. Nurture

2.3.2. Lecture 2 - Evolution

2.3.3. Lecture 3 - Basic Genetics and Epigenetics

2.3.4. Lecture 4 - Evolution, Genetics and Behavior

3. Part 3: Visual System

3.1. Readings: OpenStax Psychology: Chapter 5 Introduction; Chapter 5, Sections 5.1 to 5.3.

3.1.1. 5.1 Sensation versus Perception

3.1.1.1. SENSATION

3.1.1.1.1. When sensory information is detected by a sensory receptor, sensation has occurred.

3.1.1.1.2. transduction

3.1.1.1.3. Senses

3.1.1.1.4. Absolute threshold

3.1.1.1.5. subliminal messages

3.1.1.1.6. just noticeable difference (jnd) or difference threshold

3.1.1.2. PERCEPTION

3.1.1.2.1. Perception refers to the way sensory information is organized, interpreted, and consciously experienced.

3.1.1.2.2. Bottom-up processing

3.1.1.2.3. top-down processing

3.1.1.2.4. sensory adaptation

3.1.1.2.5. Attention

3.1.1.2.6. signal detection theory

3.1.1.2.7. Müller-Lyer illusion

3.1.2. 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths

3.1.2.1. Visual and auditory stimuli both occur in the form of waves.

3.1.2.2. AMPLITUDE AND WAVELENGTH

3.1.2.2.1. amplitude

3.1.2.2.2. Wavelength

3.1.2.2.3. Frequency

3.1.2.3. LIGHT WAVES

3.1.2.3.1. visible spectrum

3.1.2.4. SOUND WAVES

3.1.2.4.1. Pitch

3.1.2.4.2. The audible range of sound

3.1.2.4.3. The loudness of a given sound

3.1.2.4.4. Timbre

3.1.3. 5.3 Vision

3.1.3.1. ANATOMY OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM

3.1.3.1.1. Light waves are transmitted across the cornea and enter the eye through the pupil.

3.1.3.1.2. Cornea

3.1.3.1.3. pupil

3.1.3.1.4. iris

3.1.3.1.5. lens

3.1.3.1.6. fovea

3.1.3.1.7. Cones

3.1.3.1.8. Rods

3.1.3.1.9. optic nerve

3.1.3.1.10. optic chiasm

3.1.3.1.11. occipital lobe

3.1.3.2. COLOR AND DEPTH PERCEPTION

3.1.3.2.1. Color Vision

3.1.3.2.2. afterimage

3.1.3.2.3. Depth Perception

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3.3. LECTURES

3.3.1. Lecture 1 - The Eye

3.3.2. Lecture 2 - Receptive Fields

3.3.3. Lecture 3 - Retina-Geniculate-Striate System

3.3.4. Lecture 4 - Primary Visual Cortex (V1)

3.3.5. Lecture 5 - Color Vision

3.3.6. Lecture 6 - Higher Visual Cortices and Agnosias

3.3.7. Lecture 7 - Face Perception

4. Part 4: Other Sensory Systems, Perception and Attention

4.1. Readings: OpenStax Psychology: Chapter 5, Sections 5.4 to 5.67.

4.1.1. Our auditory system converts pressure waves into meaningful sounds.

4.1.2. 5.4 Hearing

4.1.2.1. ANATOMY OF THE AUDITORY SYSTEM

4.1.2.1.1. The outer ear

4.1.2.1.2. The middle ear

4.1.2.1.3. The inner ear

4.1.2.2. PITCH PERCEPTION

4.1.2.2.1. high-frequency sounds are higher pitched

4.1.2.2.2. The temporal theory

4.1.2.2.3. The place theory

4.1.2.2.4. In reality, both theories explain different aspects of pitch perception.

4.1.2.3. SOUND LOCALIZATION

4.1.2.3.1. the auditory system uses both monaural (one-eared) and binaural (two-eared) cues to localize sound.

4.1.2.3.2. Interaural level difference

4.1.2.3.3. Interaural timing difference

4.1.2.4. HEARING LOSS

4.1.2.4.1. Deafness is the partial or complete inability to hear.

4.1.2.4.2. congenital deafness

4.1.2.4.3. conductive hearing loss

4.1.2.4.4. sensorineural hearing loss.

4.1.3. 5.5 The Other Senses

4.1.3.1. THE CHEMICAL SENSES

4.1.3.1.1. Taste (gustation) and smell (olfaction) are called chemical senses because both have sensory receptors that respond to molecules in the food we eat or in the air we breathe.

4.1.3.1.2. Taste (Gustation)

4.1.3.1.3. Smell (Olfaction)

4.1.3.2. TOUCH, THERMOCEPTION, AND NOCICEPTION

4.1.3.2.1. A number of receptors are distributed throughout the skin to respond to various touch-related stimuli

4.1.3.2.2. Meissner’s corpuscles

4.1.3.2.3. Pacinian corpuscles

4.1.3.2.4. Merkel’s disks

4.1.3.2.5. Ruffini corpuscles

4.1.3.2.6. In addition to the receptors located in the skin, there are also a number of free nerve endings that serve sensory functions.

4.1.3.2.7. Pain Perception

4.1.3.3. THE VESTIBULAR SENSE, PROPRIOCEPTION, AND KINESTHESIA

4.1.3.3.1. vestibular sense

4.1.4. 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception

4.1.4.1. Gestalt psychology

4.1.4.1.1. The word gestalt literally means form or pattern, but its use reflects the idea that the whole is different from the sum of its parts

4.1.4.1.2. pattern perceptions

4.1.4.1.3. Our perceptions are based on perceptual hypotheses

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4.3. LECTURES

4.3.1. Lecture 1 - Auditory System

4.3.2. Lecture 2 - Somatosensory System

4.3.3. Lecture 4 - Selective Attention

4.3.4. Lecture 3 - Chemical Senses

5. Part 5: States of Consciousness

5.1. Readings: OpenStax Psychology: Chapter 4 Introduction; Chapter 4, Sections 4.1 to 4.6.

5.1.1. 4.1 What Is Consciousness?

5.1.1.1. Consciousness describes our awareness of internal and external stimuli.

5.1.1.2. Sleep

5.1.1.2.1. a state marked by relatively low levels of physical activity and reduced sensory awareness

5.1.1.3. Wakefulness

5.1.1.3.1. characterized by high levels of sensory awareness, thought, and behavior.

5.1.1.4. BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS

5.1.1.4.1. internal rhythms of biological activity

5.1.1.4.2. circadian rhythm

5.1.1.4.3. Homeostasis

5.1.1.5. PROBLEMS WITH CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS

5.1.1.5.1. melatonin

5.1.1.5.2. Sleep regulation

5.1.1.5.3. Disruptions of Normal Sleep

5.1.1.5.4. Insufficient Sleep

5.1.2. 4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep

5.1.2.1. We spend approximately one-third of our lives sleeping

5.1.2.2. WHAT IS SLEEP?

5.1.2.2.1. Sleep rebound

5.1.2.2.2. The pons

5.1.2.3. WHY DO WE SLEEP?

5.1.2.3.1. one would think that we would have a clear understanding of why it is that we sleep.

5.1.2.3.2. Adaptive Function of Sleep

5.1.2.3.3. Cognitive Function of Sleep

5.1.3. 4.3 Stages of Sleep

5.1.3.1. Sleep can be divided into two different general phases: REM sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep.

5.1.3.2. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

5.1.3.2.1. is characterized by darting movements of the eyes under closed eyelids.

5.1.3.3. In contrast, non-REM (NREM) sleep

5.1.3.3.1. is subdivided into four stages distinguished from each other and from wakefulness by characteristic patterns of brain waves

5.1.3.4. NREM STAGES OF SLEEP

5.1.3.4.1. Stage 1 sleep

5.1.3.4.2. stage 2 sleep

5.1.3.4.3. Stage 3 and stage 4

5.1.3.5. REM SLEEP

5.1.3.5.1. The brain waves associated with this stage of sleep are very similar to those observed when a person is awake

5.1.3.5.2. many effective antidepressant medications suppress REM sleep

5.1.3.5.3. hypnogram

5.1.3.5.4. Dreams

5.1.4. 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders

5.1.4.1. INSOMNIA

5.1.4.1.1. the most common of the sleep disorders

5.1.4.1.2. Individuals with insomnia often experience long delays between the times that they go to bed and actually fall asleep.

5.1.4.1.3. one of the criteria for insomnia involves experiencing these symptoms for at least three nights a week for at least one month’s time

5.1.4.1.4. Chronic insomnia is almost always associated with feeling overtired and may be associated with symptoms of depression.

5.1.4.1.5. Some forms of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, can help sufferers of insomnia.

5.1.4.2. PARASOMNIAS

5.1.4.2.1. Sleepwalking, restless leg syndrome, and night terrors are all examples of parasomnias

5.1.4.2.2. Sleepwalking (somnambulism)

5.1.4.2.3. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)

5.1.4.2.4. Other Parasomnias

5.1.4.3. SLEEP APNEA

5.1.4.3.1. is defined by episodes during which a sleeper’s breathing stops.

5.1.4.3.2. they do experience increased levels of fatigue.

5.1.4.3.3. Sleep apnea is much more common in overweight people and is often associated with loud snoring.

5.1.4.3.4. Obstructive sleep apnea

5.1.4.3.5. central sleep apnea,

5.1.4.3.6. One of the most common treatments for sleep apnea involves the use of a special device during sleep.

5.1.4.4. SIDS

5.1.4.4.1. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) an infant stops breathing during sleep and dies.

5.1.4.5. NARCOLEPSY

5.1.4.5.1. Unlike the other sleep disorders described in this section, a person with narcolepsy cannot resist falling asleep at inopportune times.

5.1.5. 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse

5.1.5.1. SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS

5.1.5.1.1. Physical dependence

5.1.5.1.2. psychological dependence

5.1.5.2. DRUG CATEGORIES

5.1.5.2.1. Alcohol and Other Depressants

5.1.5.2.2. Stimulants

5.1.5.2.3. Opioids

5.1.5.2.4. Hallucinogens

5.1.6. 4.6 Other States of Consciousness

5.1.6.1. HYPNOSIS

5.1.6.1.1. Hypnosis is a state of extreme self-focus and attention in which minimal attention is given to external stimuli.

5.1.6.1.2. Contrary to popular belief, individuals undergoing hypnosis usually have clear memories of the hypnotic experience and are in control of their own behaviors.

5.1.6.1.3. While hypnosis may be useful in enhancing memory or a skill, such enhancements are very modest in nature

5.1.6.2. MEDITATION

5.1.6.2.1. Meditation is the act of focusing on a single target (such as the breath or a repeated sound) to increase awareness of the moment.

5.1.6.2.2. not an altered state of consciousness per se; however, patterns of brain waves exhibited by expert meditators may represent a unique state of consciousness

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5.3. LECTURES

5.3.1. Part 5, Lecture 1: Sleep Basics

5.3.2. Part 5, Lecture 2: Dreaming

5.3.3. Part 5, Lecture 3: Why Do We Sleep?

5.3.4. Part 5, Lecture 4: How Much Sleep Do We Need?

5.3.4.1. One important effect of sleep deprivation .

5.3.4.1.1. is that individuals who are sleep deprived become in a sense, more efficient sleepers

5.3.4.1.2. That is they display more slow wave sleep

5.3.4.1.3. there are several pieces of evidence to back up that claim.

5.3.4.2. many people believe that slow wave sleep is the restorative aspect of sleep.

5.3.4.2.1. we know that sleep regained following sleep deprivation is primarily slow wave sleep

5.3.4.2.2. We also know that short sleepers, so for example, people who sleep less than maybe 5 hours a night, get as much slow wave sleep as long sleepers,

5.3.4.2.3. people who reduce their sleep get less stage one and two sleep. But they're slow wave sleep stays about the same.

5.3.4.2.4. waking people during slow wave sleep has major effects on sleepiness.

5.3.4.3. So one way of addressing how much sleep people actually need is to look at studies where people have reduced their sleep over lengthy periods of time.

5.3.4.3.1. 2 sorts of studies

5.3.4.4. So if one were to answer the question of how much sleep humans need

5.3.4.4.1. one can say that if one were to assume a monophasic sleep cycle one probably needs somewhere between five to six hours minimum of sleep per night.

5.3.4.4.2. However, if one was to assume a polyphasic sleep pattern, that number reduces substantially.

5.3.5. Part 5, Lecture 5: Drugs

6. Referanse dokumenter

6.1. Evernote

6.1.1. summary dokument

6.1.2. Tips til examen dokument

6.2. TXT filer