* ask items in one way, and the answers relect what the public is thinking ~ depending on the phrasing, the results can be significantly different
one-item or multiple-item scales
complex is preferred - enhanced reliability and validity
the wording is important for respondants to answer what is intended to be asked by the researcher offline & online
is the item necessary?, is it needed in the solution of the research problem?
how will the item be asked?, interpretation of what is asked is crucial
should the item be open- or closed-ended?, open-ended items allow respondants to answer freely, closed-ended items limit the answers from respondants
how should the item be worded?, keep it simple
what response alternatives should be used?
in what order should the alternatives be stated?
how will "don't know", "no answer", and "neutral answer" responses be handled?
rating scales, graphic rating scales, i.e. thermometer chart, itemized rating scales, select a category from a limited amount, comparative rating scales, rate against a standard
attitude scales, likert scale, indicate degree of agreement or disagreement, semantic differential, 5- or 7-point bipolar adjectives
start the questionnaire with simple and interesting question
provide clear and easy-to-read instructions if necessary
ask sensitive and classificatory information last
lay out the questionnaire so that it is easy to read and follows the flow of the questionning process
i.e. the Internet, Pros:, helps to structure the questionnaires, help eliminate bias, helps with the collection of data, provide other add-on services
once drafted, the instrument should be pretested
corrections can be made to the instrument from results of the pretest
This chapter somewhat helps with my research project. Chances are that there will be questionnaires formulated and needed when trying to accomplish our goals.