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(8) Scaling & Instrument Design by Mind Map: (8) Scaling & Instrument Design
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(8) Scaling & Instrument Design

Nature of Instrument Design

 * ask items in one way, and the answers relect what the public is thinking ~ depending on the phrasing, the results can be significantly different

what to include and exclude?


Scale Development

simple vs complex scales

one-item or multiple-item scales

complex is preferred - enhanced reliability and validity

which variables should be measured?

what are the "right" questions to be asked?

Item Phrasing

the wording is important for respondants to answer what is intended to be asked by the researcher offline & online

is the item necessary?, is it needed in the solution of the research problem?

how will the item be asked?, interpretation of what is asked is crucial

should the item be open- or closed-ended?, open-ended items allow respondants to answer freely, closed-ended items limit the answers from respondants

how should the item be worded?, keep it simple

Response Formats

what response alternatives should be used?

in what order should the alternatives be stated?

how will "don't know", "no answer", and "neutral answer" responses be handled?

Frequently Used Scaling Instruments

rating scales, graphic rating scales, i.e. thermometer chart, itemized rating scales, select a category from a limited amount, comparative rating scales, rate against a standard

attitude scales, likert scale, indicate degree of agreement or disagreement, semantic differential, 5- or 7-point bipolar adjectives

Instrument Design

Scale Sequencing and Layout

start the questionnaire with simple and interesting question

provide clear and easy-to-read instructions if necessary

ask sensitive and classificatory information last

lay out the questionnaire so that it is easy to read and follows the flow of the questionning process

Online Design Aids

i.e. the Internet, Pros:, helps to structure the questionnaires, help eliminate bias, helps with the collection of data, provide other add-on services

Pretesting and Correcting

once drafted, the instrument should be pretested

corrections can be made to the instrument from results of the pretest

The Feel Good Store (Project)

This chapter somewhat helps with my research project. Chances are that there will be questionnaires formulated and needed when trying to accomplish our goals.