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My New Mind Map On Theoretical Perspectives by Mind Map: My New Mind Map On Theoretical Perspectives
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My New Mind Map On Theoretical Perspectives

Nativist Perspective

 The nativist perspective emphasizes inborn or innate human capabilities (i.e., “nature”) as being responsible for language development.  

Noam Chomsky

Chomsky, Noam, «CHOM skee, nohm» (1928-...), is an American linguist, philosopher, and political activist. He revolutionized the study of language with his introduction of generative grammar, also called transformational grammar. Generative grammar is a set of largely unconscious rules that speakers use to produce and understand sentences in their language. Chomsky argued that certain universal properties underlie all languages, and that these properties are innate (inborn). Noam Chomsky is the major theorist associated with the nativist perspective. Chomsky's contributions to our understanding of the acquisition and structure of language have been significant (1965, 1975, 2002; Pinker, 1994). 

The main focus of Language Knowledge is Syntactic

(LAD) language acquisition device - View Notes

language acquisition device (LAD) An inborn mechanism described by Chomsky as aiding language development.

Focus is on Nature

Activity: Talking Time (see notes)

While holding or changing an infant talk Take a moment to repeat words as you say them so the infant and see your mouth move and hear the word as you speak them.

Cognitive Developmentalist

The emphasis of this perspective is that language is acquired as maturation occurs and cognitive competencies develop  

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget (1896–1980) is noted for his theory of children’s cognitive development. Piaget’s work and writing have generated more interest and research in education and developmental psychology in the last 50 years than those of any other person. His research also radically changed thinking about the growth of human intelligence. Programs that incorporate Piagetian theory emphasize that children learn through experimentation and initiative and construct their own knowledge and understanding through adaptation to the environment.  

Semantic & Morphemic Knowledge

Because the cognitive developmentalist perspective focuses on the development of schemata and the manipulation of symbols, it contributes to our understanding of how semantic, syntactic, and morphemic knowledge are acquired.

Object Permanence, Schemata, Objective Permanenc View Notes

Object permanence - involves an awareness that an object continues to exist even when it is out of sight. Schemata - abstract cognitive structures stored in human memory to represent events, concepts, or relations. Schema is the singular form. Preoperational stage - this stage begins around 2 years of age and extends to around 7 years of age. Children in this stage “begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings”      

Focus is on Nature

Activity: Songs and Finger Plays(see notes)

Playing a game like peek a boo or fingplays like  "Where is Thumbkin" is good  

Bahaviorist Perspective

The behaviorist perspective emphasizes the role of “nurture” and considers learning to occur based on the stimuli, responses, and reinforcements that occur in the environment. A child is considered to be a “blank slate” (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smith, 2001), and learning occurs due to associations established between stimuli, responses, and events that occur after the response behavior. Language is learned as a result of these associations.

B. F. SKinner

Skinner, B. F. (1904-1990), was an American psychologist best known for his research into the learning process and his belief in a planned society. Skinner was a leading supporter of programmed instruction, in which the principles of learning determined in the laboratory are applied to classroom teaching. He also became known as a student of behavioral psychology, the study of the observable behavior of human beings.

The Focus on Language Knowledge is Syntactic, Semantic and Morphemic

Type of learning is called operant conditioning (see notes)

Reinforcement often takes the form of attention, repetition, and approval (Puckett & Black, 2001). This type of conditioning (or learning) is called operant conditioning

Activity: Mother May I

Mother May I - in this activity the goal is to reach target, the target can be ball or a toy teacher find one child to give direction and the other children follows them.The object is to reach the goal by listen and follwing the direction that are given. if you don't follow the direction you have to go back to start.

Interactionist Perspective

The interactionist perspective focuses on the primary role of sociocultural interaction in children's development of language knowledge (Bruner, 1983, 1990; John-Steiner, Panofsky, & Smith, 1994; Schieffelin & Ochs, 1986). This perspective contends that children acquire language through their attempts to communicate with the world around them.

Lev Vygotsky

Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934), a Russian psychologist, emphasized the importance of language and social contexts as primary sources of development and learning (Williams, 1999). Vygotsky alleged that development proceeded through a social process and that learning and development were affected by the social occurrence of language

The Focus of Language Knowledge is Pragmaic

Main Focus in on Process not Prduct

Activity : Using eniromental Print (see Notes

Find and collect pictures of various cereal boxes, restaurants, food, and, stores that young children can recognize and make a matching game, or puzzle. Talk about how these things are around us and we can see them as we travel, go to the store or they might at our homes in the cabinet. Encourage the children to talk about where they may see them and have they seen them.