503 Text Comparison

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503 Text Comparison by Mind Map: 503 Text Comparison

1. Inside the Black Box

1.1. Citation

1.1.1. Kannapel, P. K., & Clements, S. J. (2005). Inside the Black Box of High-Performing High-Poverty Schools. Lexington, KY: Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence.

1.2. Ideologies/Concerns

1.2.1. Trying to understand what makes high-achievement/high poverty schools succeed.

1.3. Concepts

1.3.1. High Achievement with High Poverty

1.4. Strategies

1.4.1. Findings/Common Characteristics High Expectations Relationships Academic Focus Assessment Leadership Morale Intentional Teacher Assignment Surprise Little to no benefit to state oversight or technology

2. "Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms"

2.1. Citation

2.1.1. Milner IV, H. R., & Tenore, F. B. (2010). Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms. Urban Education, 45(5), 560–603.

2.2. Ideologies/Concerns

2.2.1. Discipline Gap/Culturally Responsive Discipline

2.2.2. Culturally Responsible Classroom Management Building from the literature on culturally responsive teaching (cf. Gay, 2000; M. R. Brown, 2007), Weinstein et al. (2004) conceptualized several principles that shape culturally responsive classroom management when they introduced the theory in an article published in the Journal of Teacher Education: (a) recognition of teachers’ own ethnocentrism; (b) knowledge of students’ cultures; (c) understanding of the broader social, economic, and political systems in education; (d) appropriate management strategies; and (e) development of caring classrooms. Weinstein et al. (2004) stressed that developing and implementing culturally responsive classroom management is a frame of mind more than a set of predetermined skills, actions, ideas, or strategies. It is through the responsive nature of teachers that strategies can be developed and implemented that allow teachers to manage and facilitate classroom learning opportunities and reject attempts to control students. Teachers who aspire to become culturally responsive classroom managers have the mind-set to do so and realize that if they believe they are defeated in difficult classroom situations then they probably are.

2.3. Concepts

2.3.1. Comparison of two classrooms

2.4. Strategies

2.4.1. Findings/Common Characteristics The principles that emerged in this study included the importance and centrality of teachers’ (a) understanding equity and equality, (b) understanding power structures among students, (c) immersion into students’ life worlds, (d) understanding the Self in relation to Others, (e) granting students entry into their worlds, and (f) conceiving school as a community with family members.

3. How to Use Students' Diverse Cultural Backgrounds to Enhance Academic Achievement

3.1. Citation

3.1.1. How to Use Students’ Diverse Cultural Backgrounds to Enhance Academic Achievement. (2008). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

3.2. Ideologies/Concerns

3.2.1. Cultural Diversity

3.2.2. Culturally responsive teaching

3.3. Concepts

3.3.1. Using cultural realities to understand how students learn

3.4. Strategies

3.4.1. Regular journaling in order to encourage students to realize that their own stories and lives are valuable and to encourage family involvement.

3.4.2. Teaching cultural diversity with different units.

3.4.3. Foregrounding mutual respect and equity.

4. Homogeneity and Inequality: School Discipline Inequality and the Role of Racial Composition

4.1. Citation

4.1.1. Edwards, L. (2016). Homogeneity and Inequality: School Discipline Inequality and the Role of Racial Composition. Social Forces, 95(1), 55–75. Retrieved from Project MUSE - Homogeneity and Inequality: School Discipline Inequality and the Role of Racial CompositionArticle

4.2. Ideologies/Concerns

4.2.1. Racial Inequality in School Discipline During the 2011–12 school year, black students were three times more likely than white students to receive out-of-school suspensions. These rates have steadily increased since the 1970s, when black students were about twice as likely to be suspended. Furthermore, racial differences start surprisingly early in children’s school experiences. Whereas black students represented just 18 percent of preschool students in 2011–2012, they accounted for 42 percent of single suspensions and 48 percent of multiple suspensions that year.

4.2.2. Much of the literature on why the discrepancies exist are based on interpersonal concerns (i.e. teacher racism, conscious or implicit) but the research on in-school mechanisms for the inequality is thin.

4.3. Concepts

4.3.1. Estimating the role of racial composition in accounting for this school-level variation and differentiate between two possible explanations why (interpersonal and in-school).

4.3.2. Does individual race interact with school racial composition to affect punishment?

4.3.3. Estimating the degree to which school-level differences explain racial inequality in school discipline. "Should it be the case that attending a school where the majority of students enrolled are black unequally exposes those students to harsh discipline, this provides further evidence of the detrimental effects of school segregation." (56)

4.3.4. Anti-blackness in discipline at every level of society.

4.4. Strategies/Findings

4.4.1. Threat narrative may be insufficient to explain persistent differences

4.4.2. Black students are least likely to be sanctioned for their behavior in schools that are racially mixed. This is important because it suggests that racial homogeneity (whether mostly black or mostly white) may create conditions for inequality.

4.4.3. Suggests that racially mixed environments are less likely to result in wide racial discrepancies in discipline.

4.4.4. Findings from this study thus suggest that in order to seriously address racial inequality in school punishment, more attention should be paid to institutional-level differences that create these conditions of inequality.

5. Culturally Responsive Instruction

5.1. Citation

5.1.1. Culturally Responsive Instruction - Kentucky Department of Education. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2018, from Culturally Responsive Instruction - Kentucky Department of Education

5.2. Ideologies/Concerns

5.2.1. This is an overview of a variety of texts and strategies for culturally responsive instruction.

5.3. Concepts

5.3.1. Culturally responsive teaching

5.4. Strategies

5.4.1. High expectations

5.4.2. Positive relationships with families and community

5.4.3. Cultural sensitivity

5.4.4. Active teaching methods

5.4.5. Teacher as facilitator

5.4.6. Student control of portions of the lesson

5.4.7. Instruction around group and pairs

5.4.8. Create a classroom culture that is welcoming for all learners

5.4.9. Provide student choice on assignments

5.4.10. Create lessons that connect the content to your students’ culture and daily lives

5.4.11. Present content in multiple forms (videos, manipulatives, etc.)

5.4.12. Intentionally address visual, tactile, and auditory learners in lessons

5.4.13. Allow students to collaborate and work in groups

5.4.14. Communicate and work with parents/guardians on a regular basis (email distribution lists, newsletters, phone calls, notes, meetings, etc.)

5.4.15. Use instructional materials that relate to a variety of cultures

5.4.16. Students support each other for the success of the entire class

5.4.17. Include multiple question formats on assessments

6. Schools, Prisons, and Social Implications of Punishment: Rethinking Disciplinary Practices

6.1. Citation

6.1.1. Noguera, P. A. (2003). Schools, Prisons, and Social Implications of Punishment: Rethinking Disciplinary Practices. Theory Into Practice, 42(4), 341–350. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4204_12

6.2. Ideologies/Concerns

6.2.1. Discipline Gap/Culturally Responsive Discipline

6.2.2. Social Contract in Education “Disciplinary practices in schools often bear a striking similarity to the strategies used to punish adults in society… Consistent with the way we approach crime in society, the assumption is that safety and order can be achieved by removing “bad” individuals and keeping them away from others who are presumed to be “good” and law abiding. Not surprisingly, those most frequently targeted for punishment in school often look—in terms of race, gender, and socioeconomic status—a lot like smaller versions of the adults who are most likely to be targeted for incarceration in society (342-343) Schools as social contract: Like the social contract that serves as the basis of order in most democratic societies (Durkheim, 1961; Rawls, 1971), students are expected to relinquish a certain degree of individual freedom in exchange for receiving the benefits of education. For the vast majority of students, this arrangement elicits a relatively high degree of compliance… “Not surprisingly, this arrangement tends to be least effective for students who are not receiving the benefits of an education. Once they know that the rewards of education—namely, acquisition of knowledge and skills and ultimately, admission to college, and access to good paying jobs—are not available to them, students have little incentive to comply with school rules.” (343)

6.3. Concepts

6.3.1. Does sorting out bad kids work? No.

6.3.2. Disorder and Disengagement in High Schools When kids realize that the purported goals of school and the schools' notions of success don't apply to them, they rebel.

6.3.3. Breaking the Connection Between Prisons and Schools

6.4. Strategies

6.4.1. Being gentle is simple.

6.4.2. We need a new type of educator "Perhaps what is needed even more than a revival of ideals is a recruitment of educators who will question the tendency to punish through exclusion and humiliation, and who see themselves as advocates of children and not as wardens and prison guards. Without such personnel, the drive to punish will undoubtedly be difficult to reverse and abate. (350)

7. Patterns in Recidivism and Discretionary Placement in Disciplinary Alternative Education: The Impact of Gender, Ethnicity, Age, and Special Education Status -

7.1. Citation

7.1.1. Booker, K., & Mitchell, A. (2011). Patterns in Recidivism and Discretionary Placement in Disciplinary Alternative Education: The Impact of Gender, Ethnicity, Age, and Special Education Status. Education and Treatment of Children, 34(2), 193–208. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2011.0016

7.2. Ideologies/Concerns

7.2.1. Recidivism How often do children sent to alternative education programs for discipline return to them? How does gender, ethnicity, age, and special ed status impact this?

7.2.2. Alternative Education

7.2.3. Zero Tolerance

7.3. Concepts

7.3.1. Discipline Gap

7.4. Strategies/Findings

7.4.1. White students are far more likely to be placed for easily definable reasons. Student of color often receive referrals for a wider variety of issues.

7.4.2. The results from this study elucidate the necessity for measures that target the needs and behaviors of children of color and those who interact with them.

8. Addressing Diversity in Schools: Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

8.1. Citation

8.1.1. Richards, H. V., Brown, A. F., & Forde, T. B. (2006). Addressing Diversity in Schools: Culturally Responsive Pedagogy. National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems, Arizona State University.

8.2. Ideologies/Concepts

8.2.1. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Institutional Organization of the school—This includes the administrative structure and the way it relates to diversity, andthe use of physical space in planning schools and arranging classrooms. School policies and procedures—This refers to those policies and practices that impact on the delivery of services to students from diverse backgrounds. Community involvement—This is concerned with the institutional approach to communityi nvolvement in which families and communities are expected to find ways to become involved in the school, rather than the school seeking connections with families and communities. Personal Teacher Self Reflection: Teachers Should explore their cultures, histories and belief, consistently reflecting on their relationships. Instructional Acknowledge students’ differences as well as their commonalities Validate students’ cultural identity in classroom practices and instructional materials Educate students about the diversity of the world around them Promote equity and mutual respect among stude Assess students’ ability and achievement validly T Foster a positive interrelationship among students, their families, the community, and school Encourage students to think critically Assist students in becoming socially and politically conscious

8.3. Strategies

8.3.1. Journaling/Reflective writing

8.3.2. Foregrounding community membership

8.3.3. Visiting students families and communities

8.3.4. Learning about students cultures

8.3.5. Visit successful teachers' classrooms

8.3.6. Participate in Institutional Change