BIO STUFF! :D

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BIO STUFF! :D by Mind Map: BIO STUFF! :D

1. Digestive system

1.1. Processes/functions/characteristics

1.1.1. Mouth

1.1.1.1. Chemical breakdown

1.1.1.1.1. Salivary amylase in saliva breaks down starch in the food to maltose

1.1.1.2. Mechanical breakdown

1.1.1.2.1. Teeth cuts the food into smaller peices

1.1.2. Oesophagus

1.1.2.1. Smooth muscles contract behind the bolus to push the food down the oesophagus (PERISTALSIS)

1.1.2.1.1. Peristalsis is unidirectional

1.1.3. Stomach

1.1.3.1. Muscular organ

1.1.3.1.1. Mechanical digestion

1.1.3.1.2. Chemical digestion

1.1.3.2. Has a thick layer of mucus covering its wall in order to prevent the hydrochloric acid and gastric juices from corroding it

1.1.3.2.1. When the stomach wall is corroded a STOMACH ULCER will be formed

1.1.4. Small intestine

1.1.4.1. Made of 3 parts

1.1.4.1.1. Duodenum

1.1.4.1.2. Jejunum

1.1.4.1.3. Iluem

1.1.4.2. Has numerous folds, villi and microvilli

1.1.4.2.1. Allow absorption of the digested food substances to take place at a faster rate

1.1.4.3. 5-7 meters long and small diameter

1.1.4.3.1. Provides sufficient time for absorption to take place

1.1.4.4. Dense network of blood capillaries lining the walls

1.1.4.4.1. Carries away absorbed food substances to all parts of the body

1.1.4.5. Thin epithelial separating the digested food from the blood capillaries

1.1.4.5.1. Easier for the digested food substances to pass into the capillaries quickly

1.1.5. Large intestine

1.1.5.1. Absorbs water, mineral salts and vitamins from the undigested food

1.1.5.2. Bacteria in the colon produce vitamin B12, vitamin K, thiamine and riboflavin which the large intestine absorbs

1.1.5.3. Lubricates the movement of undigested food

1.2. Enzymes/chemicals involved

1.2.1. Mouth

1.2.1.1. Saliva

1.2.1.1.1. Salivary amylase

1.2.2. Stomach

1.2.2.1. Hydrochloric acid

1.2.2.1.1. Helps the enzymes to digest and kill germs (eg. denatures proteins)

1.2.2.2. Gastric juice

1.2.2.2.1. Pepsin

1.2.2.2.2. Rennin

1.2.3. Small intestine

1.2.3.1. Bile

1.2.3.1.1. Emusifies fats into fat droplets

1.2.3.2. Pancreatic juice

1.2.3.2.1. Amylase

1.2.3.2.2. Trypsin

1.2.3.2.3. Lipase

1.2.3.3. Intestinal juice

1.2.3.3.1. Maltase

1.2.3.3.2. Erepsin

1.2.3.3.3. Lipase

1.2.3.3.4. Lactase

1.2.3.3.5. Sucrase

2. Circulatory system

2.1. Heart

2.1.1. Parts of the heart and their functions

2.1.1.1. Right ventricle

2.1.1.2. Left ventricle

2.1.1.3. Right atrium

2.1.1.4. Left atrium

2.1.1.5. Aortic arch

2.1.1.6. Pulmonary arch

2.1.1.7. Median septum

2.1.1.8. Superior vena cava

2.1.1.9. Inferior vena cava

2.1.1.10. Tricuspid valves

3. Cells

3.1. New node

4. Nutrition

4.1. Proteins