Advanced English 2

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Advanced English 2 by Mind Map: Advanced English 2

1. Reported speech

1.1. Reporting verbs: suggest, warn, order, advise, claim, threaten, complain, mention, promise, state, beg, deny, refuse

1.2. Reported:

1.2.1. Statements

1.2.2. Commands: to + V.S.F not to + VSF

1.2.3. Requests

1.2.4. Questions: Wh- Yes/No-if/whether

1.3. Backshift Pronouns Time and place

1.4. Said (that) s+told+:)

1.5. Questions: s+asked+:)

1.5.1. Examples: "Where do you live? He asked me where I lived What did she buy? He asked me what she bought

2. Conditionals

2.1. They describe the result of something that might happen (present or future) or might have happened but didn't. There are 4 types of conditionals:

2.1.1. Zero conditional: General truths or habits if + present simple, ... present simple Examples: If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils If you eat too much, you get fat

2.1.2. First conditional It's used to talk about things which might happen in the future if + present simple, ... will + infinitive Examples: If I study hard, I will get a 100 in the quiz If it rains, I won´t go to the party

2.1.3. Second Conditional To talk about things in the future that are probably not going to be true. To talk about something in the present which is impossible, because it's not true. if + past simple, ...would + infinitive Examples: If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house. If I were you, I wouldn't go out with that girl.

2.1.4. Third conditional It's used to describe a situation that didn't happen, and to imagine the result of this situation. if + past perfect, ...would + have + past participle Examples: If she had studied, she would have passed the exam. She wouldn't have been tired if she had gone to bed earlier.

3. Modal verbs

3.1. We use modal verbs to show if something is certain, probable or possible (or not). We also use modals to do things like talking about ability, asking permission making requests and offers

3.1.1. Can, Could, May, Might, Must, Shall, Should, Will, Would Examples:I can speak English You must not walk on the grass We should not be late May I help you? We will go to the match