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Cell by Mind Map: Cell

1. Only Animal cell

1.1. Centrioles

1.1.1. Made of microtubules (9+0 array)

1.1.2. Direct the formation of spindle fibre during cell division

1.1.3. 2 centrioles arranged vertically to form Centrosome

2. Only Plant cell

2.1. Large central vacuole

2.1.1. Has single membrane : Tonoplast

2.1.2. Regulates intracellular environment

2.1.3. Storage, digestion, waste removal of plant cell

2.2. Chloroplast

2.2.1. Double membrane

2.2.2. Semiautonomous organelle (has own DNA and ribosome)

2.2.3. Conduct Photosynthesis to convert solar energy into chemical energy for plant cells (Food factories of plant cell)

2.3. Cell wall

2.3.1. Made of cellulose which provides mechanical support to plant cell

2.3.2. Layers Primary cell wall, Secondary cell wall and Middle lamella

2.4. Plasmodesmata

2.4.1. Provides channels for transportation and communication between adjacent plant cell

3. Cell structure

3.1. Cell (Plasma) membrane

3.1.1. Phospholipid bilayer

3.1.2. Semi-permeable membrane

3.1.3. Control the movement of substances in and out of cell

3.2. Cytoplasm

3.2.1. Includes cytosol, organelles, chemicals, all contained by the cell membrane (not including nucleus)

3.3. Cytoskeleton

3.3.1. Maintain cell shape (especially animal cells which have no cell wall)

3.3.2. Enable organelles to move within cytoplasm

3.3.3. Types Microfilament, Microtubule and Intermediate filament

4. Cell organelles and function

4.1. Nucleus

4.1.1. Storage and replication of genetic materials

4.1.2. Controls all the cell activities

4.1.3. Double membrane (Inner and outer)

4.2. Endoplasmic reticulum

4.2.1. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum Has binding ribosomes Synthesise and transport protein

4.2.2. Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum No binding ribosomes Synthesise and transport lipid Metabolism of carbohydrates

4.3. Ribosome

4.3.1. Protein factories

4.3.2. Made of large subunit(ribosomal protein) and small subunit(ribosomal RNA)

4.3.3. Bind to Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Synthesise extracellular protein

4.3.4. Free in cytosol Synthesise intracellular protein

4.4. Golgi Apparatus

4.4.1. Modify proteins and lipids with carbohydrates to make enzymes and hormones

4.4.2. Secretes them to the outside of cell by secretory vesicles

4.5. Lysosome

4.5.1. Digestive organelle

4.5.2. Contained hydrolytic enzyme to break down substances

4.5.3. Involved in Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis

4.6. Mitochondrion

4.6.1. Powerhouse of the cell

4.6.2. Double membrane organelle

4.6.3. Semiautonomous organelle (has own DNA and ribosomes)

4.6.4. Produce ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) as energy sources of cell by cellular respiration