Educational Psychology

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Educational Psychology by Mind Map: Educational Psychology

1. Teacher Decision Making

1.1. Principle: describes the "what" of human behavior

1.2. Theory: describes why those things happen

1.3. Action Research: research conducted to address issues and problems in the school and classroom

1.4. How to become a more effective teacher

1.4.1. Adapting standard lessons, and developing your own

1.4.2. Keeping a Journal

1.4.3. Asking colleague's advice

1.4.4. Personal research and asking guiding questions

1.5. Scaffolding Approaches

1.5.1. What are my students strengths?

1.5.2. Where does my student need improvement?

1.5.3. How can I interpret my student's behavior?

1.5.4. What is my student's knowledge base?

1.6. Identifying Student's with special education needs

1.6.1. Social or behavior difficulties: distractibility, language difficulties, and uneven cognitive performance

1.6.2. Physical or Sensory challenges: less developed knowledge, articulation, impaired vision, and auditory capabilties

1.6.3. Evidence of giftedness: advances in vocabulary, knowledge, operational thinking, and regular classroom tasks below student's zone of proximal development

1.7. Encouraging Classroom Discussions

1.7.1. Focus on topics of multiple perspectives, explanations, and approaches

1.7.2. Be sure students have enough prior knowledge to discuss topics intelligently

1.7.3. Use small group discussion as a way of encouraging participation

1.7.4. Provide a structure to guide the discussion

1.8. Encouraging Creativity in the Classroom

1.8.1. Show Students creativity is valued

1.8.2. Focus attention on internal, rather than external rewards

1.8.3. Promote mastery of a subject area

1.8.4. Ask thought-provoking questions

1.8.4.1. Low Level Questions: Requires students to express what they learned in the same way

1.8.4.2. High Level Questions: Requires students to do something new with the information they learned

1.8.5. Give Students the freedom and security to take risks

1.9. Classroom Management Skills

1.9.1. Reinforcement: The act of following a particular response with a reinforcer and thereby increasing the frequency of that response

1.9.1.1. Reinforcer: A consequence of a response that leads to an increased frequency of that response. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative.

1.9.1.1.1. Using Reinforcement Effectively

1.10. Capitalising on Student's Goals

1.10.1. Plan Activities that allow students to meet several goals at once

1.10.2. Relate subject matter to student's present lives and future goals

1.10.3. Encourage students to set specific, short-term goals

1.11. Meta cognitive Scaffolding: A support structure that guides students in their own meta cognitive strategies

1.11.1. Plan a systemic, sequential approach to problems solving

1.11.2. Breaking Complex problems into sub-problems

1.11.3. Identify obstacles that amy be impeding progress

1.11.4. Continually evaluate and monitor progress towards a goal

1.11.5. Change strategy if current one does not seem to work

1.12. To Promote Self-Regulated Learning

1.12.1. Encourage Students to set goals & monitor their progress

1.12.2. Give students the opportunities to learn without teacher direction

1.12.3. Assign activities where students have leeway

1.12.4. Provide scaffolding to help students learn strategies

1.12.5. Consistently ask students to evaluate their own performance

1.13. To Promote Student's Self-Determination

1.13.1. Present rules and instructions in an informal manner, rather than controlling

1.13.2. Provide opportunities for students to make choices

1.13.3. Evaluate student performance in a non-controlling fashion

1.13.4. Minimise reliance on intrinsic reinforcers, but use them when necessary

1.13.5. Help students keep externally imposed constraints in a proper perspective

1.14. To Promote Cooperative Learning

1.14.1. Form groups based on which students are likely to effectively work together

1.14.2. Give group members one or more goals to work towards

1.14.3. Provide clear guidelines about to behave as a group

1.14.4. Structure tasks so that students are dependent on one another

1.14.5. Make students individually accountable for their achievement, but also reinforce them for group success

1.14.6. After an activity, ahve groups evaluate their success

1.14.7. Considering forming long-term cooperative groups

2. Psychological Theories

2.1. Gardner's (1983) Theory of Multiple Intelligences

2.1.1. Linguistic Intelligence

2.1.2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

2.1.3. Spatial Intelligence

2.1.4. Musical Intelligence

2.1.5. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

2.1.6. Interpersonal Intelligence

2.1.7. Intrapersonal Intelligence

2.1.8. Naturalist Intelligence

2.2. Theories of Constructivist Psychology

2.2.1. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development 1920s: how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use knowledge

2.2.1.1. Stages of Cognitive Development

2.2.1.1.1. Sensorimotor Stage (> 2 years)

2.2.1.1.2. Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)

2.2.1.1.3. Concrete Operational Stage (7-12 years)

2.2.1.1.4. Formal Operations Stage (12 years <)

2.2.1.1.5. Current Perspectives on Piaget's Theory

2.2.2. Vygotsky's Cognitive Development 1934: emphasing the importance of society and culture for cognitive development

2.2.2.1. Sociocultural Perspective

2.2.2.2. Social Constructivism and Internalisation

2.2.2.3. Zone of Proximal Development

2.2.2.4. Current Perspectives on Vygotsky's Theory

2.2.2.4.1. Mediated Learning Experience

2.2.2.4.2. Guided Particpation

2.2.2.4.3. Apprenticeships

2.2.2.4.4. Peer Interaction

2.3. Behaviourism: Learning and Behaviour are described and explained by stimulus-response relationships. Examples include classical conditioning, or giving students detention.

2.3.1. Premack Principle: where students do less preferred activities in order to engage in more preferred activities. An example would be a young child preferring to brush their teeth, instead of mowing the lawn.

2.4. Cognitive Psychology

2.4.1. Basic Assumptions

2.4.1.1. Cognitive Processes influence the nature of what we learn

2.4.1.2. Students are selective of what they process and learn

2.4.1.3. Meaning is constructed y the learner, rather thanthe environment

2.4.1.4. Students are actively involved in their own learning

2.4.2. Social Cognitive Theory: A theoretical perspective in which learning by observing others is the focus of the study

2.4.2.1. Basic Assumptions

2.4.2.1.1. People can learn by observing others

2.4.2.1.2. Learning is an eternal process that may/may not result in behavioural change

2.4.2.1.3. Behaviour is reflected towards particular goals

2.4.2.1.4. Behaviour eventually becomes self-regulated

3. Student Learning

3.1. Strategies

3.1.1. Self-Regulated Learning: Regulating one's own cognitive processes to learn effectively. Here's how it can be achieved:

3.1.1.1. Goal Setting

3.1.1.2. Planning

3.1.1.3. Attention Control

3.1.1.4. Application of Learning Strategies

3.1.1.5. Self-Motivated Strategies

3.1.1.6. Solicitation of outside help

3.1.1.7. Self-Monitoring

3.1.1.8. Self-Evaluation

3.1.2. Rehearsal: repeating information as a way of learning and remembering

3.1.3. Organisation: learning connections by forming categories, hierarchies, and determining cause-effect relationships

3.1.4. Time Management: prioritizing different tasks and creating schedules

3.1.5. Elaboration: expanding on new information based on prior knowledge

3.1.6. Metacognition: Knowing about one's own cognitive processes, such as learning strengths and/or weaknesses

3.1.6.1. Knowing the extent and limits of one's learning and memory capabilities

3.1.6.2. Knowing what tasks one can realistically accomplish within a time limit

3.1.6.3. Evaluating which learning strategies are/are not effective

3.1.6.4. Planning an approach to a task that is likely successful

3.2. Types of Knowledge/Thinking

3.2.1. Convergent thinking: answering questions that point to a single conclusion, such as in standardised testing

3.2.2. Declarative knowledge: relating to what is

3.2.3. Procedural Knowledge: How to do something

3.2.4. Meaningful Learning: A cognitive process where the learner relates new information to things already known

3.2.4.1. Conceptual Understanding: Knowledge is acquired in an integrated and meaningful way.

3.2.4.1.1. Organise Units around a few core ideas and themes

3.2.4.1.2. Explore each topic in depth

3.2.4.1.3. Explain how the new ideas relate to students' own experiences

3.2.4.1.4. Ask students to teach what they have learned to others

3.3. How Motivation Affects Learning and Behaviour

3.3.1. It directs behaviour towards particular goals

3.3.2. Leads towards increased effort and energy

3.3.3. Increases initiation of, and persistence in activities

3.3.4. Enhances cognitive processes

3.3.5. Leads to improved performance