Educational Psychology

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Educational Psychology by Mind Map: Educational Psychology

1. Instructional Strategies

1.1. Short-term objections

1.2. Long-term Objective

1.3. Task Analysis

1.4. Mastery Learning

1.5. Direct Instruction

1.6. Programmed Instruction

1.7. Computer-assisted Instruction

1.8. Computer-based instruction

1.9. Discovery Learning

1.10. Co-operative learning

1.10.1. Jigsaw technique

1.10.2. Scripted co-operation

1.10.3. Based Group

1.10.4. Peer tutoring

2. Learning Theories

2.1. Inclusive Schools

2.1.1. Collaborative work between teachers, parents, and children.

2.1.1.1. (1) Develop a learning community incorporating a critical friend

2.1.1.2. (2) Value and collaborate with parents and the broader community

2.1.1.3. (3) Engage students as citizens in school review and development;

2.1.1.4. (4) Support teachers’ critical engagement with inclusive ideals and practices.

2.2. Bilingualism

2.2.1. Works the brain to be more healthy, complex, and actively engaged.

2.2.2. Active

2.2.2.1. Speaking

2.2.2.2. Writing

2.2.3. Passive

2.2.3.1. Listening

2.2.3.2. Reading

2.2.4. Compound Bilingual

2.2.5. Coordinate Bilingual

2.2.6. Subordinate Bilingual

2.2.7. Critical Period Hypothesis

2.2.8. Pragmatics

2.2.9. Metalinguistic

2.2.10. Development of Syntax

2.3. Piaget's Stages of Development

2.3.1. Piaget observed that children have self-constructed understanding of physical and social phenomena that change in quantitative ways over time.

2.3.2. Piaget's 4 Stages

2.3.2.1. (1) Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years

2.3.2.2. (2) Preoperational stage: ages 2 to 7

2.3.2.3. (3) Concrete operational stage: ages 7 to 11

2.3.2.4. (4) Formal operational stage: ages 12 and up

2.3.3. Piaget’s Major Assumptions

2.3.3.1. Interactions with one’s physical and social environments are essential for development

2.3.3.2. Children are active and motivated learners

2.3.3.3. Children construct knowledge from their experiences.

2.3.3.4. Cognitive development depends to some degree on neurological development (how the brain physically develops over time).

2.3.4. Children learn through assimilation and accommodation

2.4. Vygotsky proposed mechanisms through which children’s social and cultural environments influence their development, and his work provided the groundwork for sociocultural theory.

2.5. Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development

2.5.1. Guided participation

2.5.2. Vygotsky’s Major Assumptions

2.5.2.1. Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth.

2.5.2.2. Thought and language become increasingly interdependent

2.5.2.3. Complex mental processes begin as social processes that children gradually internalize and use independently

2.5.2.4. Both informally and formally, adults convey their culture’s interpretations of the world.

2.5.2.5. Children perform more challenging tasks when assisted by more advanced individuals

2.5.3. Zone of Proximal Development

2.5.3.1. The ZPD is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what she/he can do with help.

2.5.3.2. We want to teach within this zone. Where the student requires instruction, modeling, practice, or support – but the task is not too challenging for the student (where they will experience failure).

2.5.4. Sociocultural perspective

2.5.4.1. A theoretical perspective that emphasizes the importance of society and culture for promoting cognitive development.

2.5.5. Social constructivism

2.5.5.1. A theoretical perspective that emphasizes that an individual's meaning-making is meditated by adults or more knowledgeable peers, even though it is ultimately constructed by the individual learner.

2.5.6. Scaffolding

2.5.7. Apprenticeship

2.5.8. Peer interaction

2.6. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

2.6.1. Forms of Reinforcement

2.6.1.1. Positive:- Particular stimulus is presented after a behavior is observed; the behavior is repeated as a result in order to obtain this same stimulus.

2.6.1.2. Extrinsic vs intrinsic reinforces: Reinforces can be concrete, social, or activity-related.What are some forms of positive reinforcement that we often use?

2.6.1.3. Negative: An aversive stimulus is removed after a behavior is observed; and the behavior is repeated as a result.

2.6.1.4. Effective Punishments : Verbal reprimands (scolding) ,Response cost , Logical consequences , Positive-practice overcorrection, and Time out

2.6.1.5. Ineffective Punishments

2.6.1.6. Using Reinforcement Effectively

2.6.1.7. Shaping New Behaviors

2.6.1.8. Successive approximations

2.6.1.9. Strategies for Discouraging Undesirable Behaviours

2.6.1.10. Strategies for Discouraging Undesirable Behaviors

2.6.1.11. Positive behavioural support: - Identify purpose of undesirable behaviour and providing alternative behaviours. Diversity in Student Behaviours and Responses to Consequences. Consider differences that we might expect in diverse populations.Cultural differences in expectations for behaviour.Students may have special needs. Various characteristics of their disability may it difficult/impossible to change certain behaviours.

2.6.1.12. Limitations of Behaviourism: - Reinforcement may encourage students to do things quickly rather than well. Can you think of times when students engage in a desired behaviour to earn a reinforcer, but you feel that they aren’t really learning from their responses?Extrinsic reinforcement of an activity that students already find intrinsically reinforcing may undermine student interest in the task.

3. Application to the Classroom

3.1. Continuous Teacher Development

3.1.1. Understand children's behaviour: Enabling the teacher to understand how environment, values and culture of children influence their behavior, perception and mental ability. Understanding this will enable the teacher to create a conducive environment for children’s effective learning.

3.2. Curriculum plan and design

3.3. Educational and school leadership

3.4. Educational measurement and evaluation

3.5. Classroom management

3.6. Educational research

3.7. School guidance and counseling

3.8. Piaget's Theory in Practice:

3.8.1. Formal Deductive Reasoning: nnIllustrates the tasks that Piaget and his collaborators developed to probe the thinking styles of secondary students.

3.8.2. Conservation Task: Depicts children between the ages of 5 and 12 performing conservation tasks dealing with quantity, length, area, and volume.

3.8.3. Preschool

3.8.3.1. Explore and Manipulate things

3.8.4. Elementary School

3.8.4.1. Encourage students to invent their own procedures and to try to solve problems in different ways.

3.8.5. Adolescents

3.8.5.1. Explain reasoning , and challenge explanations

3.9. Language Developement

3.9.1. Vocabulary increases

3.9.2. Syntax becomes more sophisticated

3.9.3. Increase in metalinguistic awareness

3.10. Learning strategies

3.10.1. Rehearsal

3.10.2. Orginization

3.10.3. Elaboration

3.11. Adaptation

3.12. Tiered Activities

3.12.1. By providing routes of access at varying degrees of difficulty, the teacher increases the likelihood that: (1) each student comes away with key skills/understandings (2) each student is appropriately challenged

3.12.2. Select the topic, concept(s), and skill(s) that you will focus on for all learners. Think about the students you are planning for in terms of levels of readiness, interests, and learning profiles.

3.12.3. Create one activity

3.12.3.1. Interesting; require high-level thinking; clearly focus on elements that will cause students to use key skill(s) to understand key idea(s). Think about the activity on a ladder.

3.12.3.2. The top rung represents students with very high skill and high complexity of understanding.

3.12.3.3. The bottom rung represents students with low skill and low complexity of understanding.

3.12.4. Compacting

3.12.4.1. Basic skills compacting eliminates specific skills that students have already acquired (spelling, mathematics, grammar).

3.12.4.2. Pre-testing is easier to accomplish: Mastery can be documented more easily and objectively.

3.12.4.3. Subject areas such as social studies, science, literature.

3.12.4.4. Students may already meet objectives, or be able to review material and master objectives in a fraction of the time. Evaluation less formal (essays, interviews, open-ended tasks).

3.12.5. Pre-test students to determine their mastery level of chosen objectives.

3.12.6. Streamline instruction of those objectives students have not yet mastered but are capable of mastering more quickly than classmates.

3.12.7. Offer challenging alternatives during time provided by compacting.

3.12.8. Working in groups

3.12.9. How to adapt?

3.12.9.1. Create a plan for making adaptations.

3.12.9.2. Identify and evaluate the demands on the student.

3.12.9.3. Determine the type of adaptation needed.

3.12.9.4. Inform the students and parents about the adaptation. Implement, evaluate, and adjust the adaptations.

3.13. ADAP Strategy

3.13.1. What to adapt?

3.13.2. Adapt the evaluation criteria

3.13.3. Adapt the instructional delivery

3.13.4. Adjust the timing or pacing of instruction

3.13.5. Adjust the physical environment

3.13.6. Adapt the type of support provided

3.13.7. Adapt grouping practices

3.13.8. Volume adjustment

3.13.9. Shifting processing format

3.13.10. Curriculum modifications

3.13.11. Making adaptations in the fundamental organization and instruction that goes on in the classroom.

3.14. Differentiation

3.14.1. Modify a curricular element only when... – (a) you see a student need; and (b) you are convinced that modification increases the likelihood that the learner will understand important ideas and use important skills more thoroughly as a result.

3.14.2. Effective differentiated classrooms include many times in which whole-class, non-differentiated activities take place within the framework of any given day.

3.14.3. Differentiation is...

3.14.3.1. Having high expectations for all of the students in your classroom. Providing multiple assignments within each unit, tailored for students levels of skill and ability. Allowing students to choose, with the teacher’s guidance, ways to learn and how to demonstrate what they have learned. Permitting students to demonstrate mastery of material they already know and to progress at their own pace through new material. Structuring class assignments so they require critical thinking & a range of responses. Assigning activities geared to different learning styles, interests, levels of thinking and achievement. Flexible. Teachers offer different programming based upon students’ needs.

3.14.4. Differentiation is not

3.14.4.1. Individualization. It isn’t a different lesson plan for each student. Giving all students the same work most of the time. Students spending significant amounts of time teaching material that they have mastered to others who have not. Assigning more work at the same level to high-achieving students, or lower level work to students who are struggling. All the time. Sometimes it is preferable to teach and have students work as a whole class. Same class assignments for all students with different expectations for responses. Limited to acceleration. Teachers should use a variety of strategies.

3.14.5. Student Characteristics (for which a teacher can differentiate)

3.14.5.1. Readiness

3.14.5.2. Interest

3.14.5.3. Readiness

4. Research

4.1. Experimental study–manipulates variables in order to explain outcomes and/or relationships

4.2. Descriptive study –describes a situation

4.3. Correlational study –explores relationships

5. Cognitive and Linguistic Development

5.1. Children tend to think in qualitatively different ways at different ages.

5.2. Children actively construct their knowledge.

5.2.1. Language Development

5.3. Development builds upon prior acquisitions.

5.4. Developmental Milestones

6. Creating and Maintaining a Productive Classroom Environment

6.1. Classroom management

6.2. Classroom climate

6.3. Sense of community

6.4. Withintness

6.5. Misbehaviour

6.6. Sense of School Community

7. LEGEND

7.1. MIND MAP #1

7.2. MIND MAP #2