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1.1. melodic lines that make up the musical texture

1.2. Types of texture

1.2.1. MONOPHONY simplest type single voiced melody is herd with no harmonic accompaniment or melodic lines. may be accompanied by rhythm and percussion instruments but all the focus is on the melody only

1.2.2. HETEROPHONY two or more voices simultaneously elaborating the same melody IMPROVISATION music is created on the spot

1.2.3. POLYPHONY two or more different melodic lines are combined, disturbs melodic interest on all parts COUNTERPOINT note against note, one musical line against another

1.2.4. HOMOPHONY single voice takes over melodic interest while accompanying lines take subordinate role HOMORHYTHM a kind of homophony where all the lines move together in the same rhythm

1.3. Contrapuntal Devices

1.3.1. IMITATION melodic idea is presented in one voice and restated by another can be same idea and an additional melodic line STRICT IMITATION exact same idea restated

1.3.2. CANNON/ROUND each voice enters in succession with the same melody that can be repeated endlessly


2.1. SCALE collection of pitches arranged n ascending or descending order

2.1.1. major

2.1.2. minor

2.1.3. do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do

2.1.4. 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8

2.1.5. OCTAVE is an interval of eight notes

2.2. TRIADS most common chord, built on a any note on the scale by combining every other note.

2.3. CHORD when three or more notes are stacked together

2.4. TONALITY organization around a central tone

2.5. TONIC first note of the scale home base around which the othres revolve and gravitate

2.6. DISSONANCE combination of tones that sounds discordant in need or resolution. introduces conflict into music

2.7. CONSONANCE concordant agreeable combination of musical tones that provide a sense of relaxation and fulfillment

2.8. DRONE single sustained note against which melodic and rhythmic complexities unfold.

2.9. simultaneous sounding of notes to form chords and the progression form one chord to the next.

2.10. INTERVAL distance between two notes

2.10.1. SUCCESSIVELY when a note follows another

2.10.2. SIMULTANEOUSLY at the same time making a chord.


3.1. Organizing principle in music

3.2. CONTOURS OF MUSICAL FORM interaction between repeated elements and the contrasting ones

3.2.1. CONTRAST stimulates our interest and feeds our desire for change

3.2.2. REPETITION fixes material in our minds and satisfies our need for familiarity SEQUENCE idea restated at a higher or lower pitch level CALL AND RESPONSE/ RESPONSORIAL MUSIC one leader imitated by a chorus of followers. OSTINATO short musical pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a major section of a composition repeated harmonies that provide a scaffolding for musical development

3.3. STROPHIC FORM same melody is repeated with each stanza of the text music of one stanza offers contrast while the repetition binds the song together

3.4. VARIATION some aspects of the music are altered but the original is still recognizable

3.5. BINARY FORM basic structural pattern one statement and a departure without a return to the complete opening section

3.5.1. A-B,A-B

3.6. TERNARY FORM extends idea of statement and departure by bringing back the first section

3.6.1. A-B-A,A-B-A

3.7. THEME melodic idea is used as building block in the construction of a larger musical work

3.7.1. MOTIVES smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic rhythm unit, cells of musical growth

3.8. MOVEMENT a complete comparatively independent division of a large scale work


4.1. RANGE distance between lowest and highest note

4.1.1. narrow

4.1.2. medium

4.1.3. wide

4.2. CONTOUR is the overall shape of upwards downwards or static

4.2.1. ASCENDING moves up

4.2.2. DESCENDING moves down

4.2.3. STATIC

4.2.4. ARCH

4.2.5. WAVE

4.3. INTERVAL is the distance between any two pitches

4.3.1. CONJUNCT moves by small intervals

4.3.2. DISJUNCT moves in large disconnected intervals

4.4. a PHRASE is a unit of meaning within a large structure

4.4.1. phrases in in resting points or CADENCES

4.4.2. CLIMAX of a melody makes a striking effect. high point of melodic line

4.4.3. COUNTER MELODY simultaneous melodies

4.5. Melody is a musical line made up of pitches and rhythm.


5.1. Rhythmic Complexities

5.1.1. UP-BEATS when music begins on the last beat of a measure

5.1.2. OFF-BEATS weak beat, in between the stronger beats

5.1.3. SYNCOPATION deliberate upsetting of the normal pattern of accentuation keeps recurrent accent form becoming monotonous

5.1.4. POLYRYTHM simultaneous use of rhythmic patterns that conflict with the underlying beat (two against three)

5.1.5. ADDITIVE METER grouping of irregular numbers of beats that add up to a larger overall pattern. Fourteen beats=2+4+4+4

5.1.6. NONMETRIC music that moves with no strong sense of beat or meter

5.2. moves music forward in time binds together the parts within the whole most fundamental part of music.

5.3. METER organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses

5.3.1. SIMPLE METER divide in duple subdivisions (twos) duple triple quadruple

5.3.2. COMPOUND METER divided into 3 subdivisions SEXTUPLE METER six beats per measure with accent on beats one four ONE-two-three-FOUR-five-six

5.3.3. MEASURES notation used to mark of meters. MEASURE LINES regular vertical lines that mark of each measure which contains a fixed number of beats

5.4. METRICAL PATTERNS reoccurring patterns of two, three or four beats

5.4.1. DOWNBEAT first accented beat of each pattern (downward stroke of conductors hand

5.4.2. DUPLE METER most basic, alternates between strong down beat with a weak beat ONE-two,ONE-two

5.4.3. TRIPLE METER basic, three beats per measure one strong beat and two weak beats ONE-two-three,ONE-two-three

5.4.4. QUADRUPLE METER four beats per measure primary accent on the first beat secondary accent on the third has a broader feeling compared to duple meter. ONE-two-THRee-four,ONE-two-THRee-four

5.5. BEATS basic unit of rhythm, regular pulse that divides time into equal segments

5.5.1. ACCENTED BEATS stronger beats usually the first beat