EDUC 5015Q - Teaching, Learning, & Development By Jeff Donck

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EDUC 5015Q - Teaching, Learning, & Development By Jeff Donck by Mind Map: EDUC 5015Q - Teaching, Learning, & Development By Jeff Donck

1. Week 1 - Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. STOP STEALING DREAMS: Seth Godin at [email protected]

1.1.1. Don't limit creativity

1.1.2. Focus on tasks which prepare the students for real life, not school

1.1.2.1. What's the point in memorizing facts?

1.1.2.2. Problem-Solving Skills

1.1.2.3. Creative Thinking

1.2. Article - Learners in the Driver's Seat

1.2.1. Students can take the lead in the classroom sometimes

1.3. Create your own idea of who you are as a teacher

1.4. Four Commonplaces of Education

1.4.1. Teacher

1.4.2. Student

1.4.3. Topic

1.4.4. Setting

1.5. Things to consider when choosing a teaching style/creating a lesson

1.5.1. Students

1.5.2. Subject Matter

1.5.3. Learning Environment

2. Week 2 - Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. GROWTH MINDSET

2.2. What adults can learn from kids

2.2.1. Students can at the very least open our minds to different ways of getting through to them. At most they can teach us so much more.

2.2.2. Expect success

2.2.3. Ask students questions

2.2.3.1. How do you feel?

2.2.3.2. What are your thoughts on this?

2.2.3.3. How do you understand this?

2.3. The power of believing that you can improve

2.3.1. Growth Mindset is so important

2.3.2. Not yet

2.4. "For what is the use of transmitting knowledge if the individual's total development lags behind? " Maria Montessori

2.5. Knowing about developmental differences is important for teachers

2.5.1. Developmental principles apply to students in all grades, not just the younger ones.

2.5.2. Developmental differences exist between grades, between students in a grade, and within individual students

2.5.3. Developmental principles provide teachers with an understanding of the learning process.

2.6. Development

2.6.1. Follows an orderly/logical progression

2.6.2. Is gradually progressive, but is not necessarily constant

2.6.3. Involves quantitative and qualitative changes

2.6.4. Occurs at a different rate for all individuals

2.6.5. Results from the influence of genetics and the environment

2.7. Teaching Considerations

2.7.1. Teach each topic in its respective learning progression

2.7.2. Allow time/practice for academic concepts to be fully understood

2.7.3. Strive to improve how students know, not just how much they know

2.7.4. Different learning speeds are normal in a classroom

2.7.5. Teacher's can positively or negatively impact the potential realized by their students

3. Week 3 - Views of Learning

3.1. Behavioural

3.1.1. Skinner

3.1.1.1. Operant Conditioning

3.1.2. Behaviour is learned by imitating models

3.1.3. Stimulus-response

3.1.4. Many problems

3.1.4.1. Tends to generalize

3.1.4.2. Who decides what are good/bad behaviours that children learn

3.2. Cognitive

3.2.1. Environment has little effect - development is entirely an individual thing which happens regardless of environment

3.2.1.1. Not wholly accurate

3.2.2. Information is processed, stored, organized, and retrieved by the mind

3.2.3. Piaget

3.2.3.1. All children pass through the 4 stages

3.2.3.2. 4 Stages of Cognitive Development

3.2.3.2.1. Sensorimotor

3.2.3.2.2. Preoperational

3.2.3.2.3. Concrete Operational

3.2.3.2.4. Formal Operational

3.2.3.3. Schemas

3.2.3.3.1. Mental representations of an object or concept which children adapt/change when presented with new information

3.3. Socio-cultural/Constructivist

3.3.1. Vygotsky

3.3.1.1. Scaffolding

3.3.1.1.1. Focus on active instructional support while considering, relating to, and interacting with students’ responses to instruction. Teachers must tailor instructional support so that students can respond to the task on their own and receive support relative to their understandings.

3.3.1.2. Zone of Proximal Development

3.3.1.2.1. What can a student do on their own, with help, or not at all?

3.3.1.2.2. More Knowledgeable Other

3.3.2. Children actively create their own knowledge, they don't simply absorb what they are told

3.3.2.1. Interpret what they are told

3.3.3. Yerkes-Dodson Law

3.3.3.1. Learning performance increases as task challenge increases, provided tasks are not too difficult.

3.3.3.1.1. Too easy or too difficult = boredom

3.3.4. Reciprocal Determinism

3.3.4.1. Behaviour of an individual is the product of both the individual and the environment

4. Week 4 - Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

4.1. Important Questions for Teachers

4.1.1. What do I want as an educator

4.1.2. What do parents want?

4.1.3. What do students want?

4.1.4. What does society want?

4.2. Tony Wagner - Most Likely to Succeed

4.2.1. No longer a competitive advantage in knowing more than someone else

4.2.1.1. Everyone can look up whatever they want

4.2.2. Need for teaching skills more than content

4.3. The Myth of Average: Todd Rose at TEDxSonomaCounty

4.3.1. Designing lessons for the average student really isn't that helpful

4.3.1.1. Strive for meeting the needs of the outliers

4.3.1.2. The average student doesn't exist in real life - nobody is average on all dimensions

4.4. DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION

4.4.1. Some students might be brilliant in one subject, but never shine because of difficulties in reading

4.4.1.1. Important to try cater some instruction to these students - allow them to reach their potential

4.5. Clear expectations are important

4.6. Be proactive and seek to prevent behaviours rather than being responsive

4.7. More positive than negative intervention in student work

5. Classroom Management

5.1. Group-work goes more smoothly when you give clear instructions and assign roles.

5.2. Classroom setup (including furniture) can make a difference for student engagement, focus, and may even be helpful for students with exceptionalities.

5.3. Mix up groups/roles to change who is working with who and doing what

6. Graphic Organizers & Entry/Exit Ticket Ideas

6.1. Key Points, Priorities, & Focus Areas

6.2. 3-2-1 Strategy

6.3. Plus, Minus, Interesting

6.4. Big Ideas

6.5. Venn Diagram

6.6. Entry Cards With Questions to Consider

7. Week 5 - Making Instructional Decisions

7.1. Zoe Branigan-Pipe - Letting Students Hack Their Lesson Plan

7.1.1. Interactive approach in the classroom helps with student engagement

7.1.1.1. She gives kids the curriculum and gives them a say in planning assessment

7.1.1.2. Set up so that group work is the norm - station for small group discussion with teacher

7.1.2. Benefits of a constructivist approach

7.1.2.1. The kids have lots to discover on their own, there isn't a lot of direct instruction with the whole class

7.1.3. Some good ideas for basic use of technology in the classroom

7.2. Teachers should be aware of how their own learning styles so they can watch out for the tendency to only instruct in the same style in which he/she best learns

7.3. UDL

7.3.1. 1. Multiple Means of Representation

7.3.1.1. Provide information to learners using a variety of different methods

7.3.1.1.1. Important for accessibility (i.e. different cultures) but also for understanding

7.3.1.1.2. Examples: graph, verbal explanation, written explanation, key words, images, etc.

7.3.2. 2. Multiple Means of Action & Expression

7.3.2.1. Allow students to present their own ideas in different ways

7.3.2.1.1. Important because a learner may struggle with one method but have a great grasp of the content and excel when the method of expression is better suited

7.3.2.1.2. Examples: written, oral presentation, graphic organizer, etc.

7.3.3. 3. Multiple Means of Engagement

7.3.3.1. Use different methods of engaging the students

7.3.3.1.1. If students are not engaged they will not learn anything

7.3.3.1.2. Examples: give students choice in what type of assignment they do or what content to focus on, vary content based on interests of students, etc.

7.4. Problem-, Project- & Inquiry-Based Learning

7.4.1. Inquiry-Based Learning

7.4.1.1. Students have an influence on the design of curricular tasks and the way learning progresses through their questions

7.4.2. Problem-Based Learning

7.4.2.1. Complete tasks cooperatively with peers with the goal of learning/discovering something at the end

7.4.3. Project-Based Learning

7.4.3.1. Students create specific educational products to demonstrate/deepen understanding

7.5. Bloom's Taxonomy

7.5.1. https://www.greycaps.com/sites/default/files/teacher/blooms.jpg

7.6. Universal Instructional Design (UID)

7.6.1. SOLE Centers

7.6.2. 7 Principles

7.6.2.1. http://ged578.pbworks.com/f/1242438785/uid.jpg

8. Week 6 - Knowing What The Students Know

8.1. How People Learn (HPL) Framework

8.1.1. Classrooms can be...

8.1.1.1. Learner-Centered

8.1.1.2. Knowledge-Centered

8.1.1.3. Assessment-Centered

8.1.1.4. Community-Centered

8.2. What is Understanding by Design? Author Jay McTighe explains.

8.2.1. Important for a teacher to use his/her professional judgement and pick the concepts which are important for students to understand and focus on those

8.2.2. Go beyond the content and teach skills like understanding, critical thinking, communication strategies, etc.

8.2.3. Get students to show understanding through transfer

8.2.3.1. Explain it in your own words

8.2.3.2. Apply it

8.2.3.3. Teach it to someone else

8.3. Learning Styles

8.3.1. Visual

8.3.1.1. Learn best from information they can see

8.3.1.2. Ex. graphs, pictures, diagrams, texts

8.3.2. Auditory

8.3.2.1. Learn best from information they hear and like to be involved in questioning

8.3.2.2. Ex. listening to lectures, asking questions

8.3.3. Tactile

8.3.3.1. Learn best by doing and moving, being involved in the process

8.3.3.2. Ex. trying something

8.4. Assessment

8.4.1. Backwards Design - start with what you want the students to learn and design the unit with the end goal in mind

8.4.1.1. 1. Identify Desired Results

8.4.1.1.1. Expectations from curriculum

8.4.1.2. 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence of Competency

8.4.1.2.1. Types of assessment

8.4.1.2.2. Unprompted assessment and self-assessment can be very important

8.4.1.3. 3. Plan Experience & Instruction

8.4.1.3.1. Authentic & purposeful activities and tasks

8.4.1.3.2. Consider how to differentiate instruction

8.4.2. Types

8.4.2.1. Diagnostic

8.4.2.2. Formative

8.4.2.3. Summative

9. Week 7 - Individual Differences, Intellectual Abilities & Challenges

9.1. Do schools kill creativity?

9.1.1. Creativity is very important in education

9.1.1.1. Maybe even as important as literacy?

9.1.1.2. Academics and STEM specifically seem to be big focuses in education, but arts is also important

9.1.2. Important to be conscious of students' creativity

9.1.2.1. Don't kill a student's creativity just because it isn't in line with how you would like things to be done

9.2. Special Education & Inclusion

9.2.1. Inclusion is the norm for schools in Ontario

9.2.1.1. Obvious benefits for the student requiring special attention

9.2.1.2. Research has shown benefits for the student's peers as well

9.2.1.2.1. Beneficial for all

9.3. Support for Students With Exceptionalities

9.3.1. Trifecta of Support

9.3.1.1. Schools

9.3.1.2. Systems

9.3.1.3. Communities

9.3.2. Inclusion, not integration

9.4. What is Intelligence?

9.4.1. Ability to learn from experience

9.4.2. Ability to acquire knowledge/skills

9.4.3. Very fluid and looks different in each person

9.4.4. https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQJhHUj24NQrElT4LG8T--zaou_JhtxuJ04yiuzNWc4NJOALYee

9.5. Exceptionalities

9.5.1. High Incidence

9.5.1.1. Giftedness

9.5.1.2. Learning Disabilities

9.5.1.3. Behaviour Disorders

9.5.1.4. Others

9.5.2. Low Incidience

9.5.2.1. Autism

9.5.2.2. Visual/Hearing Impairments

9.5.2.3. Others

9.5.3. Consider physical and cognitive access to curriculum

10. Week 8 - Socio-Cultural Considerations

10.1. How Culture Drives Behaviours | Julien S. Bourrelle | TEDxTrondheim

10.1.1. Perceptions are guided by our culture

10.1.2. Every culture has different norms

10.1.2.1. We may perceive something as strange that a person from that culture perceives as totally normal

10.1.2.2. How can you expect people to behave as they should if they don't know how they should

10.2. Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning.flv

10.2.1. Different ideas for teaching students in ways that are sensitive to different cultures and focus on providing multiple representations of these groups

10.3. The danger of a single story | Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

10.3.1. Single story (perspective) of something often leads to having the wrong impression

10.3.2. Important to be culturally sensitive and provide whole representation, not just a biased one

10.3.2.1. Makes it hard to see others as equals if you are only presented a biased view

10.4. Culturally Responsive Differentiated Instruction

10.4.1. Children learn best when their culture is reflected in the curriculum

10.4.2. Consider student's culture when differentiating instruction in addition to learning needs and interests

10.4.2.1. Try to avoid presenting everything through the majority lens

10.5. Working With Diverse Learners

10.5.1. Implement culturally relevant instruction

10.5.2. Parent/Community involvement

10.5.2.1. The parent's views on the role of education for the child may be different than the school's views

10.5.3. Building relationships

10.5.3.1. Show interest in students' lives (as you should with all students) but especially if something is different/unfamiliar to you and unique to that student's culture

10.5.4. Make sure expectations/procedures are clear

10.5.4.1. Perhaps something is different in the student's culture or past experiences

10.5.5. Diversity in schools is always increasing

10.5.5.1. Important for teachers to know their own cultural assumptions so as to be sensitive to how this may influence their teaching

11. Week 9 - Standardized Assessments

11.1. How EQAO Tests are Created, Administered and Scored

11.1.1. 4 Phases in EQAO test creation

11.1.1.1. Creation of Test Items

11.1.1.2. Field Testing

11.1.1.3. Administration of Test

11.1.1.4. Scoring

11.1.2. Lots of checks and balances across the whole cycle of creation/administration/scoring of EQAO tests so that they are as fair and valid as possible.

11.2. Standardized Testing

11.2.1. Contentious issue

11.2.2. Pros and Cons

11.2.2.1. Good for evaluating and comparing schools and provinces, seeing if educational goals are met, etc.

11.2.2.2. Not very useful to teachers for curricular planning etc.

11.2.2.2.1. Often leads to "teaching the test"

11.2.2.3. Doesn't often give cultural considerations for students outside the dominant culture.

11.2.2.4. Students become disengaged

11.2.2.5. Does not evaluate important learning skills like problem solving, creative thinking, etc.

11.3. The puzzle of motivation

11.3.1. People with incentive in an experiment took longer to complete the task

11.3.1.1. Block to creative thinking

11.3.2. Rewards narrow our focus