Mali and Inca

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Mali and Inca by Mind Map: Mali and Inca

1. Strong Government and Military

1.1. The Inca government was a monarchy led by Tawantinsuyu.

1.2. They had taxes and tax collectors that ensured all people payed their taxes.

1.3. Laws were created by the Tawantinsuyu and passed down to the rest of the people. Whatever he said was the law.

1.4. The government split up the empire into Allyus. These were a division of a few families, sort of like neighborhoods or states, and these each had their own tax collector.

2. Religion

2.1. The Incans believed in multiple gods, so they were polytheists.

2.2. There was a temple in Cusco called Coricancha that divided off into six different buildings, each building meant to honor and have prayer to one of their main six gods.

2.3. At times they worshiped in Huacas which were places of spiritual value, such as caves or anywhere peaceful and isolated.

2.4. The Uma Uillaca was the head priest and an important member in the society.

3. Geography and Agriculture

3.1. The Incas has three different climates and geographical locations to utilize, the Andes Mountains, the basin of the Amazon Rain forest, and the coastal deserts.

3.2. They grew many foods but specific and unique to that location were potatoes and Quinoa.

3.3. The Andes Mountains had both active volcanoes in them as well as mines full of minerals such as gold, silver, diamonds, etc.

3.4. Because of most of their empire being in the Andes Mountains they were forced to utilize the mountains, so they built their houses as high as 11,000 feet.

4. Social Structure and Family

4.1. There was a social hierarchy in the Inca empire. It went Saca Inca, royalty, nobility, and commoners.

4.2. The class you were born into would most likely be the class for the rest of your life. It is very difficult to move up classes.

4.3. Most girls would be married off by the age of twelve which is seen as completely inappropriate now.

4.4. Some jewelry and clothing was saved for royalty and the Saca Inca. Which made sure the commoners would not be aloud to.

5. Economy and Trade

5.1. The Inca's success partly came from the highways they created throughout their empire.

5.2. They had many available jobs to do such as mining and farming.

5.3. The Inca's had no form of currency so they mostly traded agricultural items or woven materials.

5.4. The Incas mostly traded among themselves not with other empires, they even had no marketplaces.

6. Science and Technology

6.1. They built roads/highways for cargo to travel on, or to move army troops. They were not just regular roads for people to travel on.

6.2. They created Quipus, which was string hung from a cord. The string had knots in it and it was their form of "writing". Only trained people could read these.

6.3. They had a calendar which consisted of twelve months, each month had three weeks, and each week had ten days. They watched the sun, moon, and stars in order to create the calendar.

6.4. They created terraces, which were large steps on the side of the mountains where they planted crops. This made water flow down to all the crops better and made farming much more efficient.

7. Arts and Education

7.1. There were two forms of education and it depends on which class you were, royalty or commoners.

7.2. The commoners were educated by their elders and had no real formal education. Most of the things they would learn from the elders would be about the culture and their history.

7.3. The royalty was educated specially by the Amawtakuna's, who were teachers. They were taught how to read Quipus, trained in military, etc.

7.4. The Inca's created many types of art, metal works, ceramics, and colorful textiles.

8. Strong Government and Military

8.1. The most famous ruler was named Mansa Musa. He distributed so much gold he caused inflation for a whole decade

8.2. Even though Mansa Musa was the most famous ruler, his son, Mansa Wali was considered to be one of the most powerful rulers.

8.3. The military of Mali controlled Western Africa fro the mid 13th century to the late 15th century

8.4. Once a man named Sakura became ruler, with such a low place in society it became controversial with people saying the royal family had lost it high stature in society

9. Religion

9.1. The Trans-Sahara trade brought Islam to the empire. It was introduced by traders that taught people the new religion when selling them their material goods.

9.2. The two main religions were Islam and traditional african. Although their ruler was a strong Muslim, he did not force his religion on his people.

9.3. One religion that was also in the Mali empire, but was very rare, was Animism. This was the belief that all things are animated and alive

9.4. Most artwork represented deified ancestors who were past rulers.

10. Geography and Agriculture

10.1. Mali is located in Western Africa. It stretches across the Sahel desert into the Sahara desert, which is the largest desert in the world.

10.2. Its northern boundary is the Mediterranean Sea and its southern is the Sahel desert. Together this forms a transitional zone where the "shore" of the desert is, there is has short grasses and shrubby bushes.

10.3. The main source of water was the largest river in the area, the Niger River. This made certain land very suitable farming. The annual flooding of the river made the soil very rich.

10.4. The rich soil made is very easy to farm. This made them feel very secured for food. Some crops included cotton, sesame, peanuts and other grains.

11. Social Structure and Family

11.1. There was lots social segregation, it was much like the caste system. They were divided into sectors by their social standings.

11.2. First were the rulers, then the nobles. who were the wealthy and respected that were usually involved in some form of business, next were the judges and administrators, which were people who enforced law and were respected. After comes, artisans and farmers. Lastly, was the slaves who had no rights from birth

11.3. The women weren’t at the bottom of the social pyramid like most, but they did have to make most of the food, make almost everyone’s clothing, and take care of the children until they reached 12 years. Men would start their day at sunrise, their main job was to keep their livestock and family alive and cared for.

11.4. Children started working at a very young age, usually 10. They would start learning to take care of the camels, they even had to chase after them if they ran away. The girls would start learning to cook when they were old enough to stir a pot of couscous.

12. Economy and Trade

12.1. By 1270, Mali was producing lots exports. They made iron tools and weapons, to feed and protect the people, made by skilled blacksmiths, who were greatly respected and said to have spiritual power.

12.2. The Empire also controlled a large amount of gold and salt. The gold and salt mines were the main source of wealth. The gold was used to make coins in the Muslim world.

12.3. Sundiata knew trade was key for survival and growth, so he expanded Mali's boundaries and took control of trade. Gold was often traded for salt, which was used for good health, and could be used to preserve food

12.4. Most of the gold for trade came up the Niger River. Control of the river helped Mali grow. Even though all gold clumps were property of the king, gold dust could still be traded

13. Science and Technology

13.1. Mali made many detailed astronomical observations. Many of their discoveries were so advanced that some modern scholars credit their discoveries

13.2. The Dogon people knew of Saturn’s rings, Jupiter’s moons, the spiral structure of the Milky Way and the orbit of the Sirius star system.

13.3. Many advances were made in metallurgy and tool making. These include steam engines, metal chisels and saws, copper, bronze, and iron tools and weapons

13.4. During the time time of The Lion King, Sundiata introduced cotton weaving. This was around 1190-1125.

14. Arts and Education

14.1. Most art served to support essential activities, physical and spiritual life. These activities include agriculture, well-being, education, and authority

14.2. Mali was partially famous for its amazing education such as the Sankara Madrassa - a center of learning - and the University of Sankore which made many great scholars and engineers even after the fall of the empire.

14.3. The values of Islam created a royal obligation to fund education and the arts

14.4. These sculptures represent warriors dressed in military gear, early Arabic documents show importance of the cavalry and specifically describe riders clothing