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Criminology by Mind Map: Criminology

1. Key Definitions

1.1. Protection rackets

1.1.1. A scheme whereby a groups provide protection to individuals in exchange for money through violence

1.1.2. E.g.

1.1.2.1. Mafia, (Italy, USA)

1.1.2.2. Triads (China)

1.1.2.3. Yakuza (Japan)

1.1.2.4. Organised crime gangs in Eastern Europe and the UK

1.2. Crime

1.2.1. An action or omission which constitutes and offence and is punishable y law

1.3. Deviance

1.3.1. Any behaviour or offence that violates social or cultural norms or accepted atandards

1.4. Ponzi schemes / Pyramid Schemes

1.4.1. Fraudulent investment scams promising high rates with little risk to investors- no profit made

1.5. Genocide

1.5.1. Any action with the intention to destroy in where or in part a national ethnic/ religious group

1.5.2. E.g.

1.5.2.1. Nazi Germany during the Holocaust

1.5.2.1.1. Approx. 6 million deaths

1.5.2.2. Idi Amin's Uganda in the 1970's

1.5.2.2.1. Approx. 500,000 deaths

1.5.2.3. Bosnia in the early 1990's

1.5.2.3.1. Approx. 30,000 deaths

1.5.2.4. Rwanda in 1994

1.5.2.4.1. Approx. 800,000- 1,070,000

2. Types of Crime

2.1. Domestic Abuse

2.1.1. Definition

2.1.1.1. Any act targeted to be abuse against a partner or family member thats happens within the home, often in secret

2.1.2. Examples

2.1.2.1. Assault

2.1.2.2. Murder

2.1.2.3. Torture

2.1.2.4. Verbal abuse

2.1.2.5. Financial abuse

2.1.2.6. Mental/ psychological manipulation

2.1.2.7. Removing freedom of independance

2.1.2.8. Emotional manipulation

2.1.3. Victimology

2.1.3.1. Anyone male or female

2.1.4. Types of offenders

2.1.4.1. Anyone male or female

2.1.5. Level of public awareness

2.1.5.1. Low

2.1.5.2. People are afraid / embarrassed

2.1.5.3. Fear of repruccusions

2.1.5.4. Kept in private

2.1.5.5. Other underlying sources

2.1.5.5.1. Mentally

2.1.5.6. Some are still in love with their partner

2.1.5.7. Happens over a long period of time

2.2. Hate Crime

2.2.1. Definition

2.2.1.1. Any crime perceived by the victim or any other person as being motivated by prejudice or hate based on a person's race, religious belief, sexual orientation, disability or if they are transgender

2.2.1.1.1. Aggravated by having a hate element

2.2.2. Victimology

2.2.2.1. Anyone who falls in the above strands or through association with someone from those strands

2.2.3. Case study

2.2.3.1. Matthew Shepard

2.2.3.1.1. Murdered because he was gay

2.2.3.1.2. Beaten, tortured and left for dead

2.2.3.1.3. Died in hospital six days later

2.2.3.1.4. Perpetrators

2.2.3.1.5. Obama passed the Matthew Shepard Crime Prevention Act

2.2.3.2. James Byrd

2.2.3.2.1. Lynched- died because he was black

2.2.3.2.2. Attacked by 3 white nationalists

2.2.3.2.3. Offenders

2.2.3.2.4. Beat Byrd up and chained his ankles to the back of a pick up truck

2.2.3.2.5. Passed the James Byrd Jr. Hate Crime Prevention Act

2.2.4. Types of offenders

2.2.4.1. Anyone holding a prejudicial view against someone falling under the five strands and tends to be people with different views to the victim

2.2.5. Level of public awareness

2.2.5.1. High

2.3. Green Crime/ Environmental Crime

2.3.1. Definition

2.3.1.1. Actions that cause harm to ant of the living world

2.3.2. Examples

2.3.2.1. Climate Control

2.3.2.2. Deforestation

2.3.2.3. Poaching

2.3.2.4. Pollution

2.3.3. Case studies

2.3.3.1. Chernobyl Disaster

2.3.3.1.1. 1986

2.3.3.1.2. Nuclear reactor explosion

2.3.3.1.3. 60 directly died (on the day)

2.3.3.1.4. Estimated 93,000 subsequently developed cancer

2.3.3.1.5. Future gen. developed genetic mutations

2.3.3.1.6. Now- 30km (19 mile) exclusion zone

2.3.3.2. Bhopal Disaster

2.3.3.2.1. 1984

2.3.3.2.2. Gas leak at a pesticide plant

2.3.3.2.3. 3,787 confirmed dead

2.3.3.2.4. 16,000 died with related illnesses

2.3.3.2.5. seven ex-emplyoers given two year imprisonment and a fine of £2,000

2.3.3.3. Seaworld

2.3.3.3.1. Whale capturing from the wild

2.3.3.3.2. Whale kept in small tanks

2.3.3.3.3. Whale forced to interact with other aggressive whales

2.3.4. Problems

2.3.4.1. Global scale

2.3.4.1.1. Different governments need to work together and agree (United Nations)

2.4. White-collar crime

2.4.1. Definition

2.4.1.1. A crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation

2.4.1.2. Generally non-violent crime usually committed in commercial situations for financial gain

2.4.2. Examples

2.4.2.1. Computer Fraud

2.4.2.2. Internet Fraud

2.4.2.3. Credit card fraud

2.4.2.4. Tax evasion

2.4.2.5. Illegal gambling

2.4.3. Victimology

2.4.3.1. People who have funds to invest in a financial scheme

2.4.3.1.1. E.g. Retired workers

2.4.4. Offenders

2.4.4.1. People of respectability and high social status who are trusted by their victims

2.4.4.2. Work in commercial employment (businesses)

2.4.5. Level of public awareness

2.4.5.1. Society don't know true extent

2.4.5.1.1. Don't know how it would affect them personally

2.4.5.2. Not many offenders are convicted

2.4.5.2.1. Witness and victims lie in fear that something might happen if they snitch

2.4.5.2.2. Hard to gather full evidence

2.4.5.2.3. Long-term crime

2.4.5.2.4. Money, status and power play a part in getting them the best lawyers and lowered/ no prison sentences

2.4.6. Case study

2.4.6.1. Bernie Madoff

2.4.6.1.1. Largest pyramid scheme in U.S history

2.4.6.1.2. $17.5 billion stolen from more than 4,000 accounts

2.4.6.1.3. Security fraud, advisor fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, 3 counts of money laundering, false statements, perjury, false filings, theft

2.4.6.1.4. Victims

2.4.6.1.5. Serving life in prison (150 years)

2.5. Moral Crimes

2.5.1. Definiton

2.5.1.1. Crimes against the normal standard of morality within society

2.5.2. Examples

2.5.2.1. Prostitution

2.5.2.2. Vagrancy

2.5.2.2.1. Homelessness

2.5.2.3. Under-age drinking

2.5.2.4. Assisted suicide

2.5.2.5. Illegal gambling

2.5.2.6. Illegal drug use

2.5.3. Victimology

2.5.3.1. often thought to be victimless

2.5.3.2. technically the offenders themselves are victims

2.5.4. Offenders

2.5.4.1. Likely to commit this crime...

2.5.4.1.1. ...Because there is a low chance of prosecution

2.5.4.1.2. ...Because it can be a coping mechanism

2.5.4.1.3. ...To provide for themselves/ family

2.5.4.1.4. ...If said person is forced into it/ born into it

2.5.5. Level of public awarness

2.5.5.1. Low

2.5.5.1.1. Many of the offences are hidden

2.5.5.2. Ignored by the public

2.5.5.2.1. Feeling of sympathy for victims/ offenders

2.5.5.2.2. Lack of desire to tell the police

2.5.6. Case studies

2.5.6.1. Assisted Suicide

2.5.6.1.1. United states

2.5.6.1.2. United Kingdom

2.6. State Crime

2.6.1. Definition

2.6.1.1. Activities perpetrated by, or by order of, state agencies such as governments that commit crimes in order to further their policies

2.6.1.2. Breaches the European Convention on human rights

2.6.2. Examples

2.6.2.1. Genocide

2.6.2.2. War Crimes

2.6.2.3. Imprisonment without trial

2.6.2.4. Torture

2.6.3. Victimology

2.6.3.1. Citizens of the country

2.6.3.2. Those of a different religion

2.6.3.3. Different political view than the government

2.6.4. Types of offenders

2.6.4.1. High-ranking officials under the orders of the country's regime

2.6.5. Level of public awareness

2.6.5.1. High

2.6.5.2. Because of...

2.6.5.2.1. ...Social media

2.6.5.2.2. ...It is against morals

2.6.5.2.3. ...Investigative journalism

2.6.5.2.4. ...More people are educated about human rights/ incidents

2.6.5.2.5. ...Socialisation is different

2.6.6. Case study

2.6.6.1. Rwandan Genocide

2.6.6.1.1. Between April- June 1994

2.6.6.1.2. An estimated 800,000 killed

2.6.6.1.3. Tutsi's killed by Hutu military

2.6.6.1.4. Sparked by the death of Rwandan President

2.6.6.1.5. Started in Kigali

2.6.6.1.6. ID cards used to determine who were Hutu and who were Tutsi

2.6.6.1.7. Leaders of political opposition were killed

2.6.6.1.8. Tutsi women taken away to be sex slaves

2.6.6.1.9. Recruited from all over the country

2.6.6.1.10. Churches blown up

2.6.6.1.11. Hutu civilians forced to murder Tutsi neighbours

2.6.6.1.12. July

2.7. Technological Crimes

2.7.1. Definition

2.7.1.1. Where the offence is committed using the internet or other technologies

2.7.2. Examples

2.7.2.1. Internet-enabled fraud

2.7.2.2. Downloading illegal materials

2.7.2.2.1. E.g.

2.7.2.3. The use of social media to promote hate crimes

2.7.2.4. Sextortion

2.7.2.4.1. A form of sexual exploitation (blackmail) that employs non-physical forms of cohesion to extort sexual favours or images from the victims

2.7.3. Victimology

2.7.3.1. Celebrities

2.7.3.2. Teenagers

2.7.3.3. Banks

2.7.3.4. Catfishing

2.7.3.5. Anyone with access to the media, technology and the internet

2.7.3.6. Texting

2.7.3.6.1. WhatsApp

2.7.3.6.2. Facebook

2.7.3.6.3. Messenger

2.7.3.6.4. Etc.

2.7.4. Types of offenders

2.7.4.1. Anyone with basic knowledge and access to the internet

2.7.4.2. interconnected on a global and technological scale

2.7.4.3. Often overseas with the technical ability to gain access to bank accounts, credit cards and personal information

2.7.5. Level of Public Awareness

2.7.5.1. On the rise, moderate

2.7.5.2. Easier to hide your identity

2.7.5.3. Evidence can be easily destroyed

2.7.5.4. Lack of evidence

2.7.5.5. People are embarrassed / scared to say something

2.7.5.5.1. might threathen their career

2.7.5.6. Low priority

2.7.5.7. Lac of developed police teams

2.7.5.8. Crosses jurisdictions

2.7.5.8.1. Laws are different in different countries

2.8. Honour Crime

2.8.1. Definition

2.8.1.1. Punishments on people for acts deemed to have brought shame on their families

2.8.2. Examples

2.8.2.1. Acid Attacks

2.8.2.2. Abductions

2.8.2.3. Mutilations

2.8.2.4. Beatings

2.8.2.5. Murder

2.8.3. Victimology

2.8.3.1. Typically a young girl within the family commonly a daughter from an Asian community

2.8.3.1.1. More influenced by Western Culture

2.8.3.1.2. Submissive to men

2.8.3.1.3. Patriarchal society

2.8.4. Case study

2.8.4.1. Shafilea Ahmed

2.8.4.1.1. Parents are an ultra-conservative Pakistani couple

2.8.4.1.2. Wanted her to marry a cousin in his late 20's and become a devoted wife, possibly never to return to the UK

2.8.4.1.3. More western views

2.8.4.1.4. Refused arranged marriage

2.8.4.1.5. Tried to kill herself by drinking bleach- unsuccessful

2.8.4.1.6. Parents abused her- violence escalated up to her death

2.8.4.1.7. Parents kept up the appearance of normality and to hid abuse from the school, social services and police

2.8.4.1.8. Killed for her resitance

2.8.4.1.9. Parents sentenced to 25 years in prison

2.8.5. Types of offender

2.8.5.1. Often a male member of the family

2.8.5.1.1. Typically a father, brother or uncle of the victim

2.8.6. Level of public awareness

2.8.6.1. Low

2.8.6.1.1. Due to differences in culture