Learning, Teaching and Development

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Learning, Teaching and Development by Mind Map: Learning, Teaching and Development

1. Student Behaviour

1.1. Absence of good behaviour is a performance deficit rather than a skill deficit

1.1.1. Don't get mad, get curious! Try to find the root of the behaviour

1.2. Classroom Management

1.2.1. Dynamic classroom

1.2.1.1. Behaviours do not become problems if they are well managed

1.2.1.2. Important to reinforce positive behaviours

1.2.1.3. Bill Tucker's 3 C's: Consistency, Consistency, Consistency (consistency in consequences is the key to stoping new behaviours)

1.2.1.4. Students should be involved in expectations and consequences in the classroom, having a say makes them feel like they need to follow them more.

1.2.1.5. Explicit expectations, norms and consequences should be posted in classroom and visible for students at all times

1.3. Self regulated Behaviour Management

1.3.1. On-task self monitoring

1.3.1.1. Students with exceptionalities may be unaware of issues (ADHD)

1.3.2. Effective student-regulated students advocate strongly for teachers to provide students with, and have students engage in explicit cognitive strategies

1.4. Motivation

1.4.1. Intrinsic

1.4.2. extrinsic

2. Teacher Planning

2.1. Curricular Planning

2.1.1. Breaking Curriculum down into further units

2.1.2. Top Down Approach

2.1.2.1. 1. determine the curricula

2.1.2.2. 2. break it down into units

2.1.2.3. 3. determine what will be taught on a daily basis

2.2. Lesson Planning

2.2.1. Helpful to use backward design

2.2.1.1. Step One: Identify Desired Outcomes: Articulate what learners should be able to understand and do after provided instruction.

2.2.1.2. Step Two: Determine how you'll know if students are learning. Determine what types of assessments and measures would clarify when and whether students can perform the desired outcome.

2.2.1.3. Step Three: Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction: Develop exercises, materials and instruction around the desired outcomes and evidence.

2.2.2. Should be focused for each day and should be realistic in what can actually be accomplised

3. Instruction

3.1. Reflective Practice

3.1.1. The importance of reflecting on one's own teaching practice to become a better and more effective teacher

3.2. Constructing a coherent approach to teaching

3.3. Constructivist Instruction

3.4. Importance of specialized instruction

3.5. Schwab's 4 Commonplaces

3.5.1. Teacher + Curriculum + Student + Classroom

3.6. Direct Instruction

3.6.1. Classroom is highly structured, the teacher makes all of the decisions, a lot of sitting and listening for students

4. Assessment

4.1. Purpose of Assessment: To measure and evaluate student success

4.1.1. Diagnostic Assessment

4.1.1.1. To see where students are at

4.1.1.2. Assessment as learning

4.1.2. Formative Assessment

4.1.2.1. To see how students are grasping new information

4.1.2.2. Assessment for learning

4.1.3. Summative Assessment

4.1.3.1. To see how students are able to use and apply knowledge

4.1.3.2. Assessment of learning

4.1.4. Content Validity

4.2. Bloom's Taxonomy

4.2.1. Knowledge

4.2.2. Comprehension

4.2.3. Application

4.2.4. Analysis

4.2.5. Synthesis

4.2.6. Evaluation

4.3. Erickan's Views of Evaluation

4.3.1. Student's Self-Esteems

4.3.2. Student Self-Assessment

4.3.3. Interaction in Learning Environments

4.3.4. Teacher/Student Dialogue

4.4. Types of Assessment Questions

4.4.1. Select-response questions

4.4.1.1. True or fals

4.4.1.2. multiple choice

4.4.1.3. matching questions

4.4.2. Constructed-response questions

4.4.2.1. short answer

4.4.2.2. problem solving

4.4.2.3. essay question

4.5. Feedback

4.5.1. Teachers need to provide feedback of what was done well and what could be improved and it needs to be provided within a set timeframe of the completion of the assignment

5. Child Development

5.1. Intra- and inter-individual rates of developmental progression

5.1.1. Students develop at different rates

5.1.2. In younger years, age makes a huge difference

5.2. Developmental Theories

5.2.1. Piaget

5.2.1.1. Four stages of cognitive development

5.2.1.1.1. sensorimotor

5.2.1.1.2. preoperational

5.2.1.1.3. concrete operations

5.2.1.1.4. formal operations

5.2.1.2. schema

5.2.1.3. adaptation

5.2.1.3.1. assimilation an accomidation

5.2.2. Kohlberg's six stage theory

5.2.2.1. moral development

5.2.3. Vygotsky Zone of Proximal development

5.2.3.1. Scaffolding

5.2.3.2. Children learn more and with greater efficiency when they receive some assistance from more competent individuals to complete tasks that are just beyond their independent ability

5.2.4. Chomsky

5.2.4.1. Language-acquisition device

5.2.4.1.1. an innate capacity to learn, understand and acquire language

5.2.4.1.2. 1. Function refers to the use of language to think, problem-solve, and communicate ideas to others. 2. Structure refers to all the rules that govern language use, such as syntax (grammar), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (the appropriateness of language in context). 3. Infinite generativity refers to the ability to creatively and functionally generate an infinite series of meaningful phrases, sentences, and questions based on a finite set of words and language rules.

5.3. Developmental Appropriateness

5.3.1. Guiding principals for teaching considerations

5.3.1.1. 1. Teachers must teach each topic in its respective learning progression.

5.3.1.2. 2. Teachers must allow time, and preferably practice, in order for academic concepts to be fully understood.

5.3.1.3. 3. Teachers must strive to improve how students know, not just how much they know.

5.3.1.4. 4. Teachers must consider that within their classrooms it is normal and expected that some children will learn faster or slower than others

5.3.1.5. 5. And, perhaps most important, teachers must recognize their ability to either positively or negatively affect how much of each child’s academic and social potential is realized.

5.4. Executive cognitive functioning

5.4.1. An individual's ability to organize, co-ordinate, and reflect on their thinking to achieve more efficient processing outcomes

5.4.2. Major change in adolescents' thinking

5.4.3. Steinberg, 2005

5.4.4. Use of acronyms

5.5. Principals of Development

5.5.1. orderly and logical progression

5.5.2. gradually progressive process

5.5.3. individuals have different rates of development

5.5.4. combination of nature and nurture

6. Learning

6.1. Fixed vs Growth Mindset

6.1.1. According to Dweck, “In a fixed mindset, people believe their basic qualities, like their intelligence or talent, are simply fixed traits. They spend their time documenting their intelligence or talent instead of developing them. They also believe that talent alone creates success—without effort.”

6.1.1.1. Growth Mindset vs. Fixed Mindset

6.2. Inquiry Based Learning

6.2.1. Students are working to solve a problem

6.3. Universal Design for Learning

6.3.1. I. Provide Multiple Means of Representation PerceptionLanguage, expressions, and symbols Comprehension

6.3.2. II. Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression Physical action Expression and communication, Executive function

6.3.3. III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement Recruiting interest, Sustaining effort and persistence, Self-regulation

7. Intelligence and Exceptional Students

7.1. Carroll's Model of Intelligence

7.1.1. Fluid Intelligence

7.1.2. Crystallized Intelligence

7.1.3. Visual-Spatial Intelligence

7.2. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

7.2.1. https://blog.adioma.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/9-types-of-intelligence-infographic.png

7.3. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

7.3.1. Contextual/practical

7.3.2. experiential/creative

7.3.3. componential/analytical

7.4. Inclusive Education

7.4.1. Most students with exceptionalities spend over half their time in a regular classroom setting

7.4.2. Educators must assess individual abilities in order to create instructional methods, IEPS and devise learning goals

7.5. High Incidence vs Low incidence

7.5.1. High Incidence: include learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities and giftedness. These children account for nearly 80% of students with exceptionalities

7.5.1.1. ADHD

7.5.1.2. Gifted students

7.5.1.3. learning disorders

7.5.2. Low Incidence: Include more severe impairments such austism, hearing and visual impairments and those suffering from multiple disabilities

7.5.2.1. Autism Spectrum Disorder

7.5.2.2. Physical Disability

7.6. Differentiated Learning

7.6.1. Teachers should use a variety of different teaching methods to reach all students' learning abilities

7.7. Equity vs Equality

7.7.1. Equity is giving everyone what they need to be successful. Equality is treating everyone the same. Equality aims to promote fairness, but it can only work if everyone starts from the same place and needs the same help

7.7.1.1. http://muslimgirl.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Equity-vs-Equality-twitter.jpg

7.8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=29&v=4eBmyttcfU4

8. Diversity

8.1. Diverse learners

8.1.1. Purposeful encouragement of diversity and making the academic achievement of all students the main goal

8.1.2. Strategies for working with diverse learners

8.1.2.1. Demonstration of high expectations

8.1.2.2. Implementation of culturally relevant information

8.1.2.3. establishment of caring relationships

8.1.2.4. Parent and community involvement

8.2. Stereotype Threat

8.2.1. Fear that behaviour will confirm an already existing stereotype about an identifiable group

8.3. Socio-cultural Perspective

8.3.1. Positioning Cultural identity within the individual

8.3.1.1. How Culture Drives Behaviours | Julien S. Bourrelle | TEDxTrondheim

8.4. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

8.4.1. Based on broad cultural knowledge and allows for instruction to be modified for students based on culture and needs

8.5. Socio-economic Status

8.5.1. Low SES has greatest influence on academic achievement

8.5.2. Baumrind's Parenting Styles

8.5.2.1. Authoritarian

8.5.2.1.1. Worst parenting style for academic success

8.5.2.2. Permissive

8.5.2.3. Authortative

8.5.2.3.1. Best parenting style for academic success

8.6. Multicultural Education

8.6.1. Aboriginal Education

8.6.1.1. Empowerment

8.6.1.2. different goals

8.6.1.3. useful to incorporate Aboriginal ways of teaching

8.6.2. Bank's dimensions of Multicultural Education

8.6.2.1. http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/50/51999/fig7-5.gif

9. Standardized Testing

9.1. EQAO

9.1.1. Government of Ontario administered

9.1.2. Completed in grades 3 and 6 (focusing on Math, Reading and Writing), Grade 9 (focus on math) and Grade 10 (focus on literacy)

9.1.2.1. Example of grade 9 Math http://exchangedownloads.smarttech.com/public/content/b9/b950c636-377e-42f2-9998-ef358ae4acff/previews/medium/0002.png

9.2. Aptitude Test

9.2.1. An ability test to assess students' cognitive, social and behavioural skills

9.2.1.1. i.e. modern language aptitude test

9.3. Achievement Test

9.3.1. Provides broad view of academic performances for large groups of students

9.4. Construction of Standardized tests SHOULD include

9.4.1. Curriculum

9.4.2. Instruction

9.4.3. Assessment

9.5. Interpreting Test Results

9.5.1. Results help teachers develop a better understanding of where they stand within the whole province

9.5.2. Norm referenced

9.5.3. Helps decide funding