Teaching, Learning & Development

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Teaching, Learning & Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning & Development

1. Week 1: Early August - Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Educational Psychology

1.1.1. Goal is to improve the teaching and learning processes

1.2. Effective Teachers

1.2.1. Friendly

1.2.2. Great communicator

1.2.3. Caring

1.2.4. Fun

1.2.5. Organized

1.3. Ineffective Teachers

1.3.1. Unorganized

1.3.2. Lazy

1.3.3. Biased

1.4. Commonplaces of Education

1.4.1. Want to balance the commonplaces to be the most effective teacher

1.4.1.1. Teacher

1.4.1.2. Student

1.4.1.3. Setting

1.4.1.4. Topic

1.5. Research process Steps

1.5.1. 1) Observation of Phenomena

1.5.2. 2) Formation of Questions

1.5.3. 3) Application of Research Methods

1.5.4. 4) Development of Guiding Principles

1.5.5. 5) Development of Theories

1.6. Planning

1.6.1. Excellent Instruction

1.6.2. Enhanced Student Learning

1.6.3. Exemplary Environments

1.7. Teaching Approaches

1.7.1. Student-Centered Approach

1.7.2. Teacher-Centered Approach

1.8. Curricular Planning

1.8.1. Top-down Approach

1.8.2. Bottom-up Approach

1.8.3. Backward Design

1.9. Future of Education

2. Week 2: Late August - Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Development

2.1.1. Types

2.1.1.1. Physics;

2.1.1.2. Cognitive

2.1.1.3. Social

2.1.2. Gradual Process

2.1.3. Genetics have a large influence

2.1.4. Every individual is unique

2.1.5. Literacy and numeracy skills is the best predictor of future academic success

2.2. Constructivist Views of Learning

2.3. Theoretical Approaches

2.3.1. Piaget

2.3.1.1. Schemas

2.3.1.1.1. Organizing behaviours

2.3.1.2. Adaptation

2.3.1.2.1. Adjusting to your surroundings

2.3.2. Vygotsky

2.3.2.1. Zone of Proximal Development

2.3.2.2. Scaffolding

3. Week 3: Views of Learning - Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

3.1. Environment plays a major role on how behaviours are shaped

3.2. Cognitive Perspective

3.2.1. Existing mental processes

3.2.2. Learners bring previous knowledge with them that influences the way they learn in certain situations

3.3. Behaviourist Approach

3.3.1. Classical Conditioning

3.3.1.1. Pavlov

3.3.1.1.1. Learning behaviours through association

3.3.2. Operant Conditioning

3.3.2.1. Skinner

3.3.2.1.1. Consequences of behaviours shape future behaviours

3.3.2.1.2. Reinforcement system on animals to shape behaviour

3.3.3. Role models

3.3.3.1. Can shape the behaviour of children (Bandura)

3.4. Constructivist Approach

3.4.1. Learners actively construct their knowledge

3.4.2. Make students more aware by becoming self regulated learners

3.5. Social Cognitive Theory

3.5.1. Reciprocal Determinism

3.5.1.1. Self Influences

3.5.1.1.1. Goals, attributions, self-efficacy, self-regulation

3.5.1.2. Social/Environmental Influences

3.5.1.2.1. Models, instruction, feedback

3.5.1.3. Achievement/Behaviours

3.5.1.3.1. Goal progress, motivation, learning

4. Week 4: First Week of School - Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

4.1. Student Achievement impacted by:

4.1.1. Classroom curriculum design

4.1.2. Instructional strategies

4.1.2.1. Cooperative learning

4.1.2.2. Graphic Organizers

4.1.2.3. Homework and Questions

4.1.3. Classroom management techniques

4.1.4. Learning Environment

4.1.4.1. Requires good planning and classroom management

4.1.5. Self-efficacy and self-regulation

4.1.6. Self-Regulated Learning

4.1.6.1. Allows for an effective way of learning outside of the original teachings

4.2. Things to Consider when Planning

4.2.1. Learning Profile

4.2.1.1. Knowing how a child learns

4.2.1.1.1. Visual

4.2.1.1.2. Tactile

4.2.1.1.3. Auditory

4.2.2. Interests

4.2.2.1. Want to appeal to the interests of the students

4.2.3. Readiness

4.2.3.1. Base planning off of the students skill development level

4.2.4. Instructional Variables

4.2.4.1. Difficulty

4.2.4.2. Space

4.2.4.3. Time

4.2.4.4. Language

4.2.4.5. Interpersonal Relations

4.2.5. Release of Responsibility

4.2.5.1. 1) Focus Lesson

4.2.5.2. 2) Guided Instruction

4.2.5.3. 3) Collaborative

4.2.5.4. 4) Individual

4.3. Most Likely to Succeed

5. Week 5: Mid-September - Making Instructional Decisions

5.1. Student Motivation influenced by:

5.1.1. Meaningful Tasks

5.1.2. Support and care of the teacher

5.1.3. Able to effectively use learning strategies

5.1.4. Required to demonstrate knowledge

5.2. Diagnostic Assessment

5.2.1. Determine starting position for future lessons

5.2.2. Pretests, look for misconceptions and preconceptions that students may already have

5.2.3. Students do not come in to a class wth a blank slate, they already have previous knowledge (right or wrong)

5.3. Linking Assessment and Instruction

5.3.1. 1) What do I want students to learn

5.3.2. 2) How will I determine if they learned it or not

5.3.3. 3) What will I teach

5.3.4. 4) How will I teach it

5.4. Bloom's Taxonomy

5.4.1. Levels of cognitive learning objectives

5.4.1.1. 1) Knowledge

5.4.1.2. 2) Comprehension

5.4.1.3. 3) Application

5.4.1.4. 4) Analysis

5.4.1.5. 5) Synthesis

5.4.1.6. 6) Evaluation

5.4.2. Cognitive Verbs show the thinking required for learning objectives

5.4.2.1. 1) Remembering

5.4.2.2. 2) Understanding

5.4.2.3. 3) Applying

5.4.2.4. 4) Analyzing

5.4.2.5. 5) Creating

5.4.2.6. 6) Evaluating

5.5. Universal Instructional Design

5.5.1. System that is designed to meet the needs of the student with the least independent ability

5.5.2. Instruction that is accessible for all

5.6. Play Vs Learning

5.6.1. Play can be used in combination with learning to become an effective teaching method

5.7. Direct Instruction

5.7.1. Clear learning objectives

5.7.2. Well-planned lessons

5.7.3. Explicit teaching

5.7.4. Lots of practice

5.8. Types of Learning

5.8.1. Inquiry based learning

5.8.2. Problem based learning

5.9. Letting students hack our lives

6. Week 6: Late September - Knowing that the Students Know

6.1. Learning Styles

6.1.1. Visual

6.1.1.1. Learn through seeing or reading

6.1.2. Tactile

6.1.2.1. Learn through movement

6.1.3. Auditory

6.1.3.1. Learn through hearing

6.2. Culture Shift

6.2.1. Moving from teacher as a judge to teacher as a coach

6.3. Students need:

6.3.1. Increased confidence and self motivation

6.3.2. Increased self esteem

6.3.3. Improved grades and fewer failure notes

6.4. Changing Assessment Culture

6.4.1. Should focus on learning for improvement

6.4.2. Limit assessing for "the mark"

6.5. Enduring Understandings

6.5.1. Big ideas you want to cover

6.6. Planning 3-Stage Model

6.6.1. 1) Identify Desired Results (Learning Outcomes)

6.6.1.1. Endurance

6.6.1.2. Leverage

6.6.1.3. Prepare for next level

6.6.2. 2) Determine Acceptable Evidence (assess what learners already know)

6.6.3. 3) Plan learning experiences and instruction

6.6.3.1. Teaching for understanding, not memorization

6.7. Effective Assessments

6.7.1. Multiple opportunities to improve

6.7.2. Timely feedback

6.7.3. Students know what is expected and where they stand

6.8. Ineffective Assessments

6.8.1. Unclear target

6.8.2. One shot deal

6.8.3. Humiliation

6.9. Understanding by Design

7. Week 7: Early December - Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

7.1. Effective Feedback

7.1.1. Offers info about progress about the goal and action to take to achieve it

7.1.2. Oral feedback > written feedback

7.2. Trifecta of support

7.2.1. School

7.2.2. Systems

7.2.3. Communities

7.3. Intelligence

7.3.1. Ability to learn from experience

7.3.2. Ability to adapt to environment

7.3.3. Different types of intelligence (Carroll)

7.3.4. Intelligence Measurements

7.3.4.1. Aptitude Tests

7.3.4.1.1. Predict ability to learn a skill or accomplish something

7.3.4.2. Achievement Tests

7.3.4.2.1. Measure what the student has learned or the skills they have mastered

7.3.5. Impacted by both nature and nurture

7.4. Special Education

7.4.1. Accommodating needs of students with exceptionalities

7.4.2. Instruction is tailored to the students ability

7.5. Labeling

7.5.1. Disability

7.5.1.1. Inability to do something

7.5.2. Handicap

7.5.2.1. Disadvantage in certain situations

7.6. Exceptionalities

7.6.1. High-Incidence

7.6.1.1. Mild Disabilities (learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, giftedness)

7.6.2. Low-Incidence

7.6.2.1. Moderate and Severe Disabilities (autism, hearing/visual aids, health impairments)

7.7. Access to Curriculum

7.7.1. Physical access

7.7.1.1. Sensory and motor access

7.7.2. Cognitive access

7.7.2.1. Understand assignments, plan and execute approaches to tasks

7.8. Dream vs Reality

7.8.1. Schools make students adapt to them, instead of the school adapting to the students

7.9. Inclusion

7.9.1. Acceptance of differences

7.9.2. Accessibility to all students

7.9.3. Treating everyone equally regardless of religion, ethnicity, wealth, abilities, gender or sexual orientation

8. Week 8: Early February - Socio-Cultural Considerations

8.1. Inclusion

8.1.1. Change the system to fit the child

8.2. Diversity

8.2.1. Students are all diverse and learn in different ways

8.2.2. Increasing rates of diversity in schools

8.2.3. Individualism

8.2.3.1. Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose

8.2.4. Collectivism

8.2.4.1. Act within a shared identity and common purpose

8.2.5. Want a balance between diversity and dominant culture

8.3. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

8.3.1. Broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes

8.3.2. Teachers must learn how to connect with other cultures

8.3.2.1. Making Connections

8.3.2.1.1. Achieving

8.3.2.1.2. Believing

8.3.2.1.3. Caring

8.4. Stereotypes

8.4.1. Association between one's identity group and common beliefs

8.4.2. Most vulnerable when one has strong ties to their group

8.5. Socio-Economic Status (SES)

8.5.1. Has the greatest impact on academic success

8.5.1.1. Low SES

8.5.1.1.1. Development at risk

8.5.1.1.2. Scarce resources

8.5.1.1.3. Lack of motivation

8.6. Multicultural Education

8.7. Aboriginal Education

8.8. Instrumental Value of Education

8.8.1. The degree that students believe doing well in school produces benefits

8.9. Culture driving Behaviour

9. Week 9: End of School Year

9.1. Standardized Achievement Tasks

9.1.1. Are the same for every student to ensure standardization (EQAO)

9.1.1.1. Math

9.1.1.2. Reading

9.1.1.3. Writing

9.1.2. Test Types

9.1.2.1. Criterion-Referenced

9.1.2.1.1. Student's score determined by comparing performance to criteria

9.1.2.2. Norm-Referenced

9.1.2.2.1. Student's score determined by comparing performance to other students

9.1.3. Purpose was to assess effectiveness of instruction

9.1.4. Criticisms

9.1.4.1. Biased, stressful, duration, doesn't improve student learning

9.1.5. Academic Controversy

9.2. Motivation

9.2.1. May work in some circumstances, but some times they don't work or do harm

10. Need to understand how students develop in order to cater to their needs

11. We must ensure we are planning for the school year prior to September. You must know which approach you are going to follow and what types of methods you are going to use

12. The behaviourist approach allows for us to use techniques that will help shape future behaviour and help teach students to strive for the right things

13. All of these different approaches have their strengths and weaknesses, being able to combine them together allows for a better approach with a multitude of strengths

14. Release of responsibility allows students to slowly get more control over their learning as you progress through a lesson

15. Many factors play a role on the success of students. As a teacher we must ensure to take all these factors into consideration when planning our lessons

16. Diagnostic Assessments are important prior to any new topics to ensure you are teaching students appropriately

17. It's important to ensure you are following the universal instructional design when teaching students. This will provide you with the most effective lesson plans that will work for all of your students

18. Need to shift the way of teaching to maximize student learning through this culture shift. It's all about student state of mind and how they will react to results.

19. My speciality of urban education emphasizes equally treating students regardless of who they are or where they come from. In today's society there are many barriers that create a divide that should not exist. As teachers, we need to ensure we do our best to remove the divide and treat each student with the respect they deserve.

20. Need to ensure all aspects of education are taken into account. Multicultural and aboriginal education are important to help raise awareness to other students about important factors in the society

21. If students believe they are not getting any benefits out of doing well in school, they will have decreased motivation to do well.