5015Q - Teaching, Learning & Development

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5015Q - Teaching, Learning & Development by Mind Map: 5015Q - Teaching, Learning & Development

1. Inquiry-based Learning

1.1. investigate

1.1.1. research

1.1.1.1. explore

1.1.1.1.1. study

1.2. problem solving + "problem finding"

1.3. Focus on the BIG IDEAS

1.3.1. this will naturally cover specific curriculum expectations

1.4. Authentic Inquiry

1.4.1. generated by student curiosity

1.5. NOT ALWAYS NECESSARY/APPROPRIATE

1.5.1. teaching on a "need-to-know" basis

2. Student Centred Learning

2.1. Teacher = facilitator/provocateur

2.1.1. "Move children from a position of wonder to enacted understanding and further questioning"

2.1.2. Ensures ideas = "central currency"

2.1.3. Prompts students to clarify reasoning

2.1.4. Provide intellectually stimulating questions

2.1.4.1. open-ended

2.1.5. strategic intervention

2.1.6. Guide students to be lifelong learners

2.2. Student content

2.2.1. collect/save frequently occurring questions

2.2.2. spontaneous questions

2.3. "Authentic Agents"

2.3.1. share student work

2.4. constructivist perspective

2.4.1. "students actively construct their own understandings"

2.4.1.1. social negotiation

2.4.1.2. self-determination

3. Professionalism

3.1. "Reflective Practioner"

3.1.1. analyzes the effectiveness of lessons

3.1.2. understands their personal ethics/morals

4. Purpose(s) of Education

4.1. Early 20th Century

4.1.1. tool for shaping obedience

4.1.2. linked to the goals of industrial capitalism

4.1.2.1. maximum efficiency = increased productivity

4.1.3. indoctrinate students into compliance

4.2. My Philosophy

4.2.1. generate critical, creative & kind self-learners

4.2.2. assist students in finding/feeling a sense of purpose

4.2.3. don't give students all the answers

4.2.4. push students outside their comfort zones

4.2.5. have high but flexible expectations

4.2.6. students understand the WHY behind tasks

4.2.7. help students realize themselves

4.2.8. "What you do matters now."

4.3. 21st Century

4.3.1. "connect dots, don't collect dots."

4.3.1.1. less focus on knowledge acquisition

4.3.2. Switch to "Growth Mindset"

4.3.3. "teach students where they are"

4.3.4. Differentiated instruction

4.3.4.1. UDL

4.3.4.1.1. multiple means of Representation

4.3.4.1.2. multiple means of Action & Expression

4.3.4.1.3. multiple means of Engagement

5. Student Progress/Success

5.1. journey, not an end point

5.2. relative

5.3. best predictor of future success = "early mastery of literacy and numeracy skills."

6. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

6.1. Recognition = the WHAT

6.2. Skills & Strategies = the HOW

6.3. Caring & Prioritizing = the WHY

7. Psychological Theories of Learning

7.1. Behavioural

7.1.1. Social Learning Theory (Bandura)

7.1.1.1. shape behaviour w/o a reward

7.1.1.1.1. e.g. aggressive role model = aggressive behaviour

7.1.1.2. extension of behaviourism

7.1.2. ignores mental processes

7.1.3. ethical concerns

7.1.3.1. who's allowed to control behaviour?

7.1.4. main issues

7.1.4.1. partial explanation of human experience

7.1.4.2. change in behaviour is temporary

7.1.5. main advantage

7.1.5.1. very practical for changing behavior

7.1.5.1.1. e.g. advertising & therapy

7.1.6. main assumption

7.1.6.1. "behaviour can be controlled or modified based on the antecedents and consequences of a behaviour."

7.1.7. 2 Major Theories

7.1.7.1. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)

7.1.7.1.1. learn through association, e.g. dog

7.1.7.1.2. involuntary responses, e.g. salivating

7.1.7.2. Operant Conditioning (Skinner)

7.1.7.2.1. consequences of behaviours shape behaviours, e.g. rats & pigeons

7.1.7.2.2. voluntary responses, e.g. push lever

7.2. Cognitive

7.2.1. focuses on mental processes

7.2.2. overtook behaviourism

7.2.2.1. dominant approach in contemporary psych.

7.2.3. Piaget

7.2.3.1. mental equilibrium

7.2.3.1.1. we always strive to resolve cognitive dissonance

7.2.3.2. humans are inherently curious

7.2.3.2.1. 2 basic learning instincts

7.2.4. Spiral Curriculum

7.2.4.1. relate new information to prior knowledge

7.2.5. Learning Objectives

7.2.5.1. Bloom's Taxonomy

7.2.5.1.1. Knowledge

7.2.5.1.2. Comprehension

7.2.5.1.3. Application

7.2.5.1.4. Analysis

7.2.5.1.5. Synthesis

7.2.5.1.6. Evaluation

7.3. Social Cultural & Reciprocal Determinism

7.3.1. three factors influence behaviour:

7.3.1.1. environment

7.3.1.1.1. external social stimuli

7.3.1.1.2. influences intensity & frequency of behaviour

7.3.1.2. the individual

7.3.1.3. behaviour itself

7.3.1.3.1. through cognitive processes

7.4. Lev Vygostky

7.4.1. zone of proximal development

7.4.1.1. tasks students can only perform with help

7.4.1.2. tasks that are just outside student's ability

7.4.2. scaffolding

7.4.2.1. "active instructional support"

7.4.2.2. guidelines

7.4.2.2.1. assess learner's current knowledge & experience as it relates to new content

7.4.2.2.2. relate the unknown to the known

7.4.2.2.3. break down tasks

7.4.2.2.4. "use verbal cues and prompts to assist students"

8. My Teaching Philosophy

8.1. Understand my biases

8.1.1. cultural assumptions

8.2. "play is the highest form of research."

8.3. Most important thing = show students HOW to learn

8.4. "figure out what everyone in the classroom needs and get it."

8.5. "kids do well if they can"

8.5.1. "if a student could do well, he would do well"

8.5.2. child wants to do well but may lack skills

8.5.2.1. skills deficit orientation NOT motivation deficit

8.5.3. behavioural issues

8.5.3.1. SKILLS NO, MOTIVATION YES

8.6. kids do well when they know how to do well

8.6.1. inspired by the book, Peak: How all of us can achieve extraordinary things

8.7. Principles of "Deliberate Practice"

9. Planning for the Upcoming School Year

9.1. Questions to ask...

9.1.1. What will be taught

9.1.2. When will it be taught

9.1.3. How and when will learning be assessed

9.1.4. What teaching methods and materials will be used

9.1.5. how to establish the type of learning environment needed

9.1.6. What BIG IDEAS do I want students to have an understanding of

9.1.7. What do I want students to know

9.2. Curriculum Planning

9.2.1. Determine curricula for the year

9.2.2. Determine curricula for the term

9.2.3. Break the curricula down into units

9.2.4. Determine what will be taught on a daily basis

9.2.5. Place emphasis on 'transferable concepts'

9.2.6. Backwards Design

9.3. Classroom Design

10. Growth Mindset

10.1. intelligence can be developed

10.2. embrace challenges

10.3. push through failure and see it as a learning opportunity

10.4. effort is key to mastery

10.5. criticism can be constructive, not just personal

10.6. look to the masters for valuable information

11. Student Development

11.1. physical

11.2. cognitive

11.2.1. learning becomes more organized

11.3. social

11.3.1. behaviours become more adaptive

11.4. Individuals develop at different rates

12. Constructivist Classroom

12.1. incorporate real world situations

12.2. social negotiation - collaborative work

12.3. present content in different ways

13. Resilient Children

13.1. good self-esteem

13.2. sense of competence

13.3. optimistic

13.4. personal control

13.5. feel connected

13.6. motivated to learn

13.7. self-disciplined

14. First Week of School

14.1. develop learning profiles

14.2. generate an understanding of student interests

14.3. determine learning abilities/skill levels

14.4. outline non-negotiable expectations

15. Classroom Management

15.1. Bump System

15.1.1. proximity

15.1.2. touch

15.1.3. student's name

15.1.4. gesture

15.1.5. the look

15.1.6. the pause

15.1.7. ignore

15.1.8. signal to begin/for attention

15.1.9. deal with the problem not the student

16. Problem-based Learning

16.1. minimal direct instruction

16.2. prior knowledge and skills application are important

16.3. students determine problems and develop problem statements

17. Learning Styles

17.1. Visual

17.1.1. generate meaning best by seeing or reading information

17.1.1.1. e.g. illustrations, pictures, diagrams, graphic organizers

17.2. Tactile

17.2.1. learning by doing and moving

17.3. Auditory

17.3.1. generate meaning best by hearing and speaking material

17.3.1.1. e.g. lectures, stories, audiobooks, etc.

18. Assessment

18.1. cultural shift

18.1.1. teacher = coach, NOT teacher ≠ judge

18.1.2. Focus on learning for improvement, NOT simply measuring

18.1.2.1. "weighing the pig does not make it grow."

18.2. Understanding comes from...

18.2.1. explaining

18.2.2. successfully interpreting

18.2.3. applying concepts

18.2.4. formulating critical perspectives

18.2.5. empathizing

18.2.6. having self-knowledge

18.3. Puroposes

18.3.1. measure current level of understanding

18.3.2. used to improve learning

18.3.3. a method for outlining growth

18.3.4. to determine whether or not students understand new material

18.4. Wiggins & McTighe

18.4.1. 3 types of assessment

18.4.1.1. Performance Task

18.4.1.1.1. real-world challenge using knowledge & skill

18.4.1.2. Criteria Reference

18.4.1.2.1. e.g. quizzes, tests, prompts

18.4.1.3. Unprompted & Self-assessment

18.4.1.3.1. e.g. conferences, observations, dialogues, etc.

18.5. Feedback

18.5.1. constructive

18.5.2. clear success criteria

18.5.3. comments > grades

18.5.4. oral feedback > written feedback, especially for low-achieving, at-risk

18.6. Standardized Testing

18.6.1. arguments against

18.6.1.1. tendency to "teach to the test" = narrowing of curriculum

18.6.1.2. absent linguistic/cultural differences

18.6.1.3. "lost within the overall numbers"

18.6.1.4. student disengagement

18.6.1.5. inadequately test 21st Century skills, i.e. creativity, tech ability, problem solving, critical thinking

18.6.1.6. focuses too much on memory and knowledge acquisition rather than ability to apply learning

18.6.2. arguments for

18.6.2.1. useful for comparing schools, provinces, or countries

18.6.2.2. test strengths and weaknesses of system

18.6.2.3. means for assessing accountability

18.6.2.4. means for evaluating curricula and goals

19. Intelligence

19.1. General intelligence

19.1.1. Fluid Intelligence

19.1.2. Crystallized Intelligence

19.1.3. General memory and learning

19.1.4. Broad visual perception

19.1.5. Broad auditory perception

19.1.6. Broad retrieval capacity

19.1.7. Broad cognitive speediness

19.1.8. Processing speed (decision speed)

19.2. Measurement

19.2.1. aptitude tests

19.2.2. achievement tests

19.3. Nature & Nurture

20. Special Education

20.1. accommodating special learning needs of students with exceptionalities

20.2. specialized instruction

20.3. Exceptional Students

20.3.1. Disability = inability to do something

20.3.1.1. mild disabilities = learning, behavioural disorders, giftedness, intellectual

20.3.1.2. severe disabilities = autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairments

20.3.2. Handicap = a disadvantage in certain situations

20.4. Inclusion

20.4.1. acceptance of differences

20.4.2. appropriate teacher interventions

20.4.3. material is accessible to all students

21. Teaching Diverse Learners

21.1. achievement gap is widened by low expectations

21.2. Demonstration of High Expectations

21.2.1. challenge students in preferred learning style

21.2.2. students receive praise for genuine effort

21.2.3. children = "at-promise" NOT at-risk

21.2.4. teachers are persistent

21.2.5. teachers provide equitable opportunities

21.2.6. give students ample time

21.2.7. teachers provide useful feedback

21.2.8. high-level, open-ended questions

21.3. Culturally Relevant Instruction

21.3.1. closes achievement gap by race/ethnicity

21.3.2. bridge home understandings with school understandings

21.3.3. incorporate real-world issues into classroom

21.3.4. equitable group practices

21.3.5. Cooperative Learning

21.3.5.1. suitable classroom setup

21.3.5.2. group works fosters care for one another's contributions

21.3.5.3. each student is individually accountable

21.3.6. Use Community Funds of Knowledge

21.3.6.1. understand and incorporate diverse backgrounds

21.3.6.2. share stories

21.3.6.3. culturally meaningful instruction materials

21.3.6.4. learning activities connect to student's personal background

21.3.7. Instructional Conversations

21.3.7.1. more questioning, less explaining

21.3.7.2. use of 2nd language

21.3.7.3. differentiate instruction for English language learners

21.3.7.4. explain concepts in multiple ways

21.3.8. Cognitively Guided Instruction

21.3.9. Technology-enriched Instruction

21.3.9.1. web-based picture libraries

21.3.9.2. digital books for assisting pronunciation and translation

21.4. Establishment of Caring Relationships

21.4.1. pair with "buddy"

21.4.2. make family feel welcome in school

21.4.3. cross-age + peer-tutoring

21.4.4. shared leadership among students

21.5. Parent and Community Involvement

21.5.1. parent's may view education differently

21.5.2. open communication about events with parents

21.5.3. culturally appropriate communication

21.5.4. parents are aware of expectations

21.5.5. parents receive frequent feedback on child's progress

21.5.6. work with the greater community

22. Dr. Greene

23. Anders Ericsson & Robert Pool

24. What adults can learn from kids

25. Albert Einstein

26. Letting Students Hack Their Learning

27. Understanding by Design

28. "It's my safe space..."

29. Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning

30. The Danger of a Single Story