Indigenous people

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Indigenous people by Mind Map: Indigenous people

1. Problems

1.1. Outsiders

1.1.1. Troubled Indigenous People

1.1.1.1. Gave less money

1.1.1.2. The Indian Act

1.1.2. Tried assimilation

1.1.2.1. 1. Breach of Promise: Unfulfilled treaties that deny Indigenous rights.

1.1.2.2. 2. Exclusion: Creating legislation that excludes Indigenous rights.

1.1.2.3. 3. Legislation: Creating legislation against Indigenous rights and culture, the Indian Act.

1.1.2.4. 4. Cultural Destruction: Cultural genocide from residential schools and provincial child welfare agencies, the Indian Act, forced relocation and provincial education systems.

1.1.2.5. 5. Attrition: Selective funding and infrastructure development to support non-Indigenous definitions of development and civilization.

1.1.2.6. 6. Acquisition: Crown ownership versus inherent and international Indigenous rights to land and resource ownership.

1.1.2.7. 7. Abuse of Power: The Department of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada’s role in maintaining barriers, blocking Meaningful Consultation and preventing reconciliation.

1.1.3. Did not like Indigenous people

1.1.3.1. Feeling was mutual

1.2. Residential schools

1.2.1. Abuse

1.2.1.1. Punishment

1.2.1.1.1. For small things

1.2.1.2. Torture

1.2.1.2.1. If you acted up to much

1.2.2. Learning

1.3. Money

1.3.1. Very few jobs

1.3.1.1. Maids etc.

1.3.2. Student plan

1.3.2.1. If you had children at a residential school you would get some money

2. Traditions & Beliefs

2.1. Had a lot of Festivals

2.1.1. Different sacred places

2.1.1.1. Sun Dance

2.1.1.2. Winter Ceremonies

2.1.1.3. Green Corn Festival

2.1.1.4. Midewiwin

2.2. Believed in Spirits

2.2.1. Creation stories

2.2.1.1. Earth Diver stories ( Turtle Island)

2.2.1.2. Believed in Creator

2.2.2. Tricksters and Shape-Shifters

2.2.2.1. Tricksters

2.2.2.1.1. Nanabozo

2.2.2.1.2. Raven

2.2.2.1.3. Coyote

2.2.2.2. Shape-Shifters

2.2.2.2.1. Glooscap

2.2.2.2.2. Malsum

3. Culture (Clothes, Tools)

3.1. Clothes

3.1.1. Furs

3.1.2. Special Clothing designed for Canadian Winters

3.2. Tools

3.2.1. Knives

3.2.1.1. Ulu knife

3.2.1.2. Bow and Arrow and weapons

3.2.1.2.1. Spears

3.2.1.2.2. Bow and arrow

3.2.1.2.3. Clubs

3.3. Getting food

3.3.1. Hunting

3.3.1.1. Men hunted and women cooked the game

3.3.1.1.1. Games depended on land terrain and living conditions

3.3.2. Fishing

3.3.2.1. Men fished and women cooked the fish

3.3.2.1.1. What fish depended on the area of the tribe

4. I

5. Types of Indigenous people

5.1. Metis(could not do accent)

5.1.1. Do not have separate Tribes

5.1.2. Consist of anyone that has Indigenous heritage but is not an Inuit or a First Nations

5.1.3. Are considered on of the three Indigenous groups by The Constitution Act

5.2. Inuit

5.2.1. Different groups

5.2.1.1. Kalaallit

5.2.1.2. Iñupiat

5.2.1.3. Inuvialuit

5.2.1.4. Greenlandic Inuit

5.2.1.5. Copper Inuit

5.2.1.6. Inughuit

5.2.1.7. NunatuKavut people

5.2.1.8. Tunumiit

5.2.1.9. Caribou Inuit

5.2.2. Characteristics

5.2.2.1. Traditional Inuit way of life was influenced by the harsh climate and stark landscapes of the Arctic tundra – from beliefs inspired by stories of the aurora to practicalities like homes made of snow. Inuit invented tools, gear, and methods to help them survive in this environment.

5.2.3. Interactions with Europeans

5.2.3.1. The lives of Paleo-Eskimos of the far north were largely unaffected by the arrival of visiting Norsemen except for mutual trade. The Labrador Inuit have had the longest continuous contact with Europeans.After the disappearance of the Norse colonies in Greenland, the Inuit had no contact with Europeans for at least a century. By the mid-16th century, Basque whalers and fishermen were already working the Labrador coast and had established whaling stations on land, such as the one that has been excavated at Red Bay, Labrador.The Inuit do not appear to have interfered with their operations, but the Natives raided the stations in winter, taking tools and items made of worked iron, which they adapted to their own needs.

5.2.3.2. Martin Frobisher's 1576 search for the Northwest Passage was the first well-documented contact between Europeans and Inuit. Frobisher's expedition landed in Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, not far from the settlement now called the City of Iqaluit. Frobisher encountered Inuit on Resolution Island where five sailors left the ship, under orders from Frobisher. They became part of Inuit mythology. The homesick sailors, tired of their adventure, attempted to leave in a small vessel and vanished. Frobisher brought an unwilling Inuk to England, possibly the first Inuk ever to visit Europe. In contrast, the Inuit oral tradition recounts the natives helping Frobisher's crewmen, whom they believed had been abandoned.

5.2.3.3. The semi-nomadic eco-centred Inuit were fishers and hunters harvesting lakes, seas, ice platforms and tundra. While there are some allegations that Inuit were hostile to early French and English explorers, fishers and whalers, more recent research suggests that the early relations with whaling stations along the Labrador coast and later James Bay were based on a mutual interest in trade. In the final years of the 18th century, the Moravian Church began missionary activities in Labrador, supported by the British who were tired of the raids on their whaling stations. The Moravian missionaries could easily provide the Inuit with the iron and basic materials they had been stealing from whaling outposts, materials whose real cost to Europeans was almost nothing, but whose value to the Inuit was enormous. From then on, contacts between the national groups in Labrador were far more peaceful.

5.2.3.4. The Hudson's Bay Company ships Prince of Wales and Eddystone with Inuit boats off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson Strait, Canada

5.2.3.5. Hudson's Bay Company Ships bartering with Inuit off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson Strait, 1819

5.2.3.6. The exchanges that accompanied the arrival and colonization by the Europeans greatly damaged the Inuit way of life. Mass death was caused by the new infectious diseases carried by whalers and explorers, to which the indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity. The high mortality rate contributed to the enormous social disruptions caused by the distorting effect of Europeans' material wealth and introduction of different materials. Nonetheless, Inuit society in the higher latitudes largely remained in isolation during the 19th century.

5.2.3.7. The Hudson's Bay Company opened trading posts such as Great Whale River (1820), today the site of the twin villages of Whapmagoostui and Kuujjuarapik, where whale products of the commercial whale hunt were processed and furs traded. The British Naval Expedition of 1821–23 led by Admiral William Edward Parry twice over-wintered in Foxe Basin. It provided the first informed, sympathetic and well-documented account of the economic, social and religious life of the Inuit. Parry stayed in what is now Igloolik over the second winter. Parry's writings, with pen and ink illustrations of Inuit everyday life, and those of George Francis Lyon were widely read after they were both published in 1824. Captain George Comer's Inuit wife Shoofly, known for her sewing skills and elegant attire, was influential in convincing him to acquire more sewing accessories and beads for trade with Inuit.

5.3. First Nations

5.3.1. Different groups

5.3.1.1. Coast Salish peoples

5.3.1.2. Nuxálk (Bella Coola; not linguistically Coast Salish)

5.3.1.3. Kimsquit

5.3.1.4. Tallheo

5.3.1.5. Stuie

5.3.1.6. Kwatna

5.3.1.7. Shishalh (Sechelt)

5.3.1.8. Squamish

5.3.1.9. Pentlatch (a.k.a. Puntledge, extinct)

5.3.1.10. Qualicum

5.3.1.11. Comox-speaking:

5.3.1.12. K'omoks (Kwak'wala speaking today)

5.3.1.13. Sliammon

5.3.1.14. Homalco

5.3.1.15. Klahoose

5.3.1.16. Halkomelem-speaking

5.3.1.17. Hulqiminum (Island Halkomelem):

5.3.1.18. Snuneymuxw (Nanaimo)

5.3.1.19. Cowichan

5.3.1.20. Somena (S’amuna’)

5.3.1.21. Quw'utsun

5.3.1.22. Quamichan

5.3.1.23. Clemclemaluts (L’uml’umuluts)

5.3.1.24. Comiaken (Qwum’yiqun’)

5.3.1.25. Khenipsen (Hinupsum)

5.3.1.26. Kilpahlas (Tl’ulpalus)

5.3.1.27. Koksilah (Hwulqwselu)

5.3.1.28. Penelakut

5.3.1.29. Hwlitsum (Lamalcha or Lamalchi)

5.3.1.30. Hunquminum (Downriver Halkomelem)

5.3.1.31. Musqueam

5.3.1.32. Tsleil-Waututh (Burrard)

5.3.1.33. Katzie

5.3.1.34. Kwantlen

5.3.1.35. Kwikwetlem (Coquitlam)

5.3.1.36. Snokomish (extinct)

5.3.1.37. Tsawwassen

5.3.1.38. Halqemeylem (Upriver Halkomelem)

5.3.1.39. Sts'Ailes (Chehalis)

5.3.1.40. Sto:lo (Fraser River Salish)

5.3.1.41. Aitchelitz

5.3.1.42. Leq' a: mel

5.3.1.43. Matsqui

5.3.1.44. Popkum

5.3.1.45. Skway

5.3.1.46. Skawahlook

5.3.1.47. Skowkale

5.3.1.48. Squiala

5.3.1.49. Sumas

5.3.1.50. Tzeachten

5.3.1.51. Yakweakwioose

5.3.1.52. Chawathil

5.3.1.53. Cheam

5.3.1.54. Kwaw-kwaw-Apilt

5.3.1.55. Scowlitz (Scaulits)

5.3.1.56. Seabird Island

5.3.1.57. Shxw'ow'hamel

5.3.1.58. Soowahlie

5.3.1.59. North Straits Salish-speaking

5.3.1.60. Songhees (a.k.a. Songish, a.k.a. Lekwungen)

5.3.1.61. T'Souke (Sooke)

5.3.1.62. Semiahmoo

5.3.1.63. Malahat

5.3.1.64. Lummi

5.3.1.65. Klallam

5.3.1.66. Tsartlip

5.3.1.67. Tsawout

5.3.1.68. Tseycum

5.3.1.69. Pauquachin

5.3.1.70. Esquimalt

5.3.1.71. New Westminster (no language affiliation)

5.3.1.72. Tsimshianic peoples (Northern Mainland)

5.3.1.73. Tsimshian (Sm'algyax speaking)

5.3.1.74. Gitxsan (Gitxsanimaax speaking)

5.3.1.75. Nisga'a

5.3.1.76. Haida (Haad kil speaking)

5.3.1.77. Southern Wakashan peoples

5.3.1.78. Nuu-chah-nulth (incorrectly called Nootka)

5.3.1.79. Tla-o-qui-aht (Clayoquot)

5.3.1.80. Mowachaht-Muchalaht

5.3.1.81. Ahousaht (formed from the merger of the Ahousaht and Kelsemeht bands in 1951)

5.3.1.82. Ehattesaht

5.3.1.83. Hesquiaht

5.3.1.84. Cheklesahht

5.3.1.85. Kyuquot

5.3.1.86. Nuchatlaht

5.3.1.87. Huu-ay-aht (formerly Ohiaht)

5.3.1.88. Hupacasath (formerly Opetchesaht)

5.3.1.89. Toquaht

5.3.1.90. Tseshaht

5.3.1.91. Uchucklesaht

5.3.1.92. Ucluelet

5.3.1.93. Ditidaht

5.3.1.94. Pacheedaht

5.3.1.95. Northern Wakashan peoples (Central Coast)

5.3.1.96. Kwakwaka'wakw

5.3.1.97. Laich-kwil-tach (Euclataws/Yuculta a.k.a. Southern Kwakiutl)

5.3.1.98. Weewaikai (Cape Mudge)

5.3.1.99. Wewaykum (Campbell River)

5.3.1.100. Kwiakah

5.3.1.101. Koskimo

5.3.1.102. 'Namgis (Nimpkish)

5.3.1.103. Haisla (Kitamaat)

5.3.1.104. Henaksiala

5.3.1.105. Heiltsuk (Bella Bella, at the community of the same name)

5.3.1.106. Wuikinuxv (Owekeeno)

5.3.1.107. Tsetsaut (extinct Athapaskan-speakers)

5.3.2. Characteristics

5.3.2.1. The Pre-contact Nations

5.3.2.2. The Aboriginal peoples of Canada are divided into around historic 50 nations or tribes, which are split into more than 600 smaller bands. These are usually grouped into six broad communities, based mostly on geography:

5.3.2.3. The Haudenosaunee people, also known as the Indians of Northeast Eastern Woodlands, are Canada’s largest native community, and historically lived in farms around the St. Lawrence river and Great Lakes in modern day Ontario and Quebec. Famous for their distinctive long houses, they were organized into a powerful political coalition known as the Iroquois Confederacy, and were the first to make substantial contact with European explorers. Notable nations include the Algonquin, Huron, Mohawk, Mi’kmaq, Ojibwa, and Ottawa.

5.3.2.4. The Great Plains or Prairie Indians lived in the territory that today forms the Prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Their livelihood came from hunting the wild buffalo of the region, and they famously used “every part” for survival. Many of the Plains Indians’ conflicts with Canadians and Americans in the 19th century have been heavily glamorized by Hollywood and others over the years, and their traditions are probably the most well-known and stereotypical. Nations include the Blackfoot, Cree, Ojibwa, and Sioux.

5.3.2.5. Library of Congress

5.3.2.6. Mapping Aboriginals

5.3.2.7. It can be difficult to sort Canadian aboriginals into large groups since most never really organized themselves that way, and instead mostly just identified with their local community. Anthropologists tend to use language and geography as the main sorting principle. Seen here, a 19th century American map of aboriginal language groups in Canada. The coloured groups align with many of the geographic communities described here.

5.3.2.8. The Indians of the Northwest Coast lived along Canada’s Pacific coast, in modern-day British Columbia. They were primarily fishermen who lived in houses dotted along the beach, and are today best known for their distinctive artwork, including wood carvings and totem poles. The Northwest Coast Indians divided themselves into very a large number of very small communities, with the most prominent nations including the Haida, Nootka, and Salishan.

5.3.2.9. The Plateau Indians were a small but distinctive community who lived in an elevated area in southeastern British Columbia between the Rocky and Cascade mountain ranges. Athapascan, Ktunaxa, and Interior Salish are their primary nations.

5.3.2.10. The Subarctic Indians were a nomadic people who lived all across the barren, northwestern half of Canada in temporary, movable shelters. They hunted the caribou and followed its migration pattern. Given the vastness of the territory they occupied, which spanned from the island of Newfoundland to Yukon, the Subarctic Indians contained a large number of nations, many of which overlapped with the nations of other regions, including the Algonquin, Athapaskan, Beaver, Cree, Dene, and Slave.

5.3.3. Despite their differences, most aboriginal nations shared certain common characteristics, particularly hunter-gatherer sustenance lifestyles, deep respect for nature, egalitarian and communal social values, and deep and detailed spiritual beliefs. Many had permanent housing, farms, and stable political structures, as well as rich cultures with distinctive traditions in art, fashion, song, and dance. At the same time, their societies were often lacking in other important fields, and most native communities lacked a written language, used only primitive weapons, and had mostly simplistic and superstitious understandings of basic scientific concepts.

5.3.4. Interactions with Europeans

5.3.4.1. When the Europeans arrived, First Nations were eager to trade furs for metal knives, axe heads, pots, needles, muskets, cloth, and glass beads. The trade goods were quickly dispersed along First Nations' traditional trade routes, and the fur trade expanded rapidly.

5.3.4.2. Aboriginal people in Canada interacted with Europeans as far back as 1000 AD:Part 1 but prolonged contact came only after Europeans established permanent settlements in the 17th and 18th centuries. European written accounts noted friendliness on the part of the First Nations,:Part 1 who profited in trade with Europeans. Such trade strengthened the more organized political entities such as the Iroquois Confederation.Ch 6 The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 200,000 and two million in the late 15th century. The effect of European colonization was a forty to eighty percent Aboriginal population decrease post-contact. This is attributed to various factors, including repeated outbreaks of European infectious diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox (to which they had not developed immunity), inter-nation conflicts over the fur trade, conflicts with colonial authorities and settlers and loss of land and a subsequent loss of nation self-suffiency. For example, during the late 1630s, smallpox killed over half of the Huron, who controlled most of the early fur trade in what became Canada. Reduced to fewer than 10,000 people, the Huron Wendat were attacked by the Iroquois, their traditional enemies. In the Maritimes, the Beothuk disappeared entirely.