Teaching, Learning and Development

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Teaching, Learning and Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development

1. Learning Styles and Exceptionalities

1.1. Flipped Classroom

1.1.1. This was discussed thoroughly in my Math class. It can be a good alternative strategy that caters to more types of learners

1.1.2. Allows the teacher more time to focus on specific students who need extra support

1.2. Every student learns in a different way; how can we teach 20-30 students differently?

1.2.1. Auditory

1.2.2. Visual

1.2.3. Kinesthetic

1.3. Types of Intelligence

1.3.1. Fluid intelligence

1.3.2. Crystallized intelligence

1.3.3. Visual-Spatial reasoning

1.4. Special Education

1.4.1. High-Incidence exceptionalities

1.4.1.1. learning disabilities

1.4.1.2. behavioural disorders

1.4.1.3. giftedness

1.4.2. Low-incidence exceptionalities

1.4.2.1. Autism

1.4.2.2. hearing/visual impairment

1.4.3. How can students with exceptionalities be better integrated into the regular classroom?

1.4.3.1. Individual education plan (IEP)

1.4.3.1.1. 6 Phases for determining an IEP

1.4.3.1.2. 12 fundamental questions for IEP formulation

2. Socio-Cultural Diversity

2.1. Removing a Eurocentric view from teaching

2.1.1. Classrooms will have students from a variety of backgrounds

2.1.2. Be careful that you do not bring in your biases, could be a result of being raised to have faith in Western ideals

2.2. Teachers must have a critical consciousness and cultural understanding

2.2.1. Strategies for promoting cultural diversity in the classroom

2.2.1.1. Incorporate cultural knowledge into instruction via community-based research

2.2.1.2. link classroom content to students’ cultural experiences

2.2.1.3. form and maintain connections with their students within their social/cultural contexts

2.3. Socio-economic Status (SES)

2.3.1. Large impact on the success of a student

2.3.1.1. SES–achievement relationship is so prevalent that it holds true regardless of other socio-cultural factors such as race, gender, and ethnicity

2.3.2. Associated with varying parenting styles

2.3.3. Offset impacts of a low SES with an effective teaching style

3. Four Commonplaces of Education

3.1. Teacher

3.2. Student

3.3. Topic

3.4. Environment

3.4.1. This component is so often forgotten when creating a successful educational experience. Why is that?

3.4.1.1. Teachers assume that the classroom they are given is limited by the four walls and desks. However, there are so many opportunities to customize the environment to the students

3.4.1.1.1. Do a class outside!

3.4.1.1.2. Use different seating arrangements such as a circle instead of rows; this way everyone can make eye contact and have improved communication!

3.4.1.1.3. Use standing desks

4. Teacher Planning

4.1. In order to give effective instruction, a teacher must have a plan with desired outcomes and goals before starting a lesson

4.1.1. How will a lesson be taught? Having a clear goal is important, but remember that students will reach that goal in different ways

4.1.1.1. Student-Centered Learning

4.1.1.1.1. Constructivism!

4.1.1.2. Teacher-Centered Learning

4.2. Planning process should include looking at previous research to determine which methods will be most effective

4.2.1. Don' be afraid to use other teacher's research! Cooperation in the profession is key to effective teaching

4.3. Diagnostic Assessment

4.4. Get to know your students before they arrive in class. Overall, I believe that this is a good strategy, however consider the Pros and Cons of how this could affect the learning process

4.4.1. Pros

4.4.1.1. allows the teacher to know of any behavioural issues that could be present and create a plan to deal with them

4.4.1.2. find information about different learning styles and cater the planning accordingly

4.4.1.3. Getting to know a student's background can help the teacher cater to any cultural, religious, physical, and mental considerations

4.4.2. Cons

4.4.2.1. Having background information can unintentionally create biases and affect the teacher-student relationship

5. Stages of Development

5.1. When creating an educational plan, you need to keep in mind that students will absorb knowledge and concepts at different rates depending on what skills they have previously developed

5.2. Everyone develops at different rates, and this includes developing physically, socially, emotionally, and intellectually

5.2.1. It is important to be using constant assessment to track students' progression in various areas

5.2.1.1. If they are struggling, review the topic more thoroughly and reflect on whether or not the teaching style is effective based on their developmental stage

5.2.1.2. If they are absorbing the information easily, consider increasing the complexity of the subject matter and how it is delivered

6. Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

6.1. Research has been done to determine which methods are most effective for addressing classroom and behavioural management

6.1.1. Constructivist Approach

6.1.2. Behaviourist Approach

6.1.3. Cognitive Approach

6.1.4. Dynamic Classroom Management (DCM)

6.1.4.1. Proven to be effective in reducing number of negative incidents and improving student performance

6.1.4.2. Five global principles

6.1.4.2.1. Three Fundamental Understandings/Implications

6.2. What students need to be motivated and be resilient

6.2.1. Need to feel respected and supported

6.2.1.1. Must find the balance between autonomy and support; make sure students know that you are always available for questions during independent work

6.2.2. To feel autonomous and have a sense of self-determination

6.2.3. Feel accomplished and successful

6.3. Myth of Average

6.3.1. Need to stop basing educational practice on the "average" student. They don't exist! Instead base it on the extremes so that no one is excluded

6.3.1.1. This can be difficult to incorporate into current educational structures due to lack of human and monetary resources

6.4. In Math class, we learn about Math Anxiety and how it can have such an impact on learning

6.4.1. The "average" student we would expect to have some interest in math, but we need to cater to those who have a fear of math!

6.4.2. Don't forget students who love math and need additional challenges to stay engaged

7. Learning Process

7.1. Piaget

7.1.1. 4 Stages of Development

7.1.1.1. Birth to Adulthood

7.1.2. Basic Learning Instincts

7.1.2.1. Organizing thoughts into systems

7.1.2.1.1. Schemas

7.1.2.2. Adapting to new information and environments

7.1.2.2.1. Disequilibrium--> Assimilation/Accommodation--> Equilibrium

7.1.3. Independent Learning

7.2. Chomsky

7.2.1. Language Development

7.2.1.1. Language-Acquisition Device (LAD)

7.3. Vygotsky

7.3.1. Learning from others with more competence

7.3.1.1. Scaffolding

7.3.1.2. Zone of Proximal Development

8. Effective Instructional Practices

8.1. Three Primary Principles that guide Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

8.1.1. Provide Multiple Means of Representation

8.1.2. Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression

8.1.3. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement

8.2. What is the goal of instruction?

8.2.1. What do I want my students to learn?

8.2.1.1. Specific Learning Objective

8.2.2. How will I determine whether or not they have learned?

8.2.2.1. Assessment Question

8.3. Backward Design

8.3.1. Let desired educational outcomes dictate what their instructional plan looks like

8.4. Bloom's Taxonomy

8.4.1. hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives

8.4.1.1. 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

8.4.2. Specific Verbs to use to indicate which cognitive objective is being addressed

8.5. Universal Instructional Design (UID)

8.5.1. advocates for physical spaces and objects that consider the needs of all users and especially those of individuals with disabilities.

8.5.2. It is a concept of equitable accessibility and utility.

8.6. select–organize–integrate (SOI) information-processing model

8.6.1. Encourage active thinking in my students, as opposed to simple rote memorization, my teaching must make what is to be learned meaningful

9. Standardized Testing

9.1. Contain the same questions for everyone

9.2. Administered in the same way for all students

9.3. Criterion-Referenced

9.3.1. Specific criteria to meet for all students

9.4. Norm-Referenced

9.4.1. Students compared to other students

9.4.1.1. Rewarding students for being in the top percentile...can actually hinder learning!

9.5. EQAO- is it effective?

9.5.1. Test scores are often linked to...

9.5.1.1. Teachers effectiveness?

9.5.1.1.1. Can often result in more PD, etc to "fix" the teachers

9.5.1.2. SES?

9.5.1.2.1. Low scores found in schools in low SES regions

9.5.1.3. School environment?

9.5.2. Math scores are often the focus of school boards

9.6. Critiques of Standardized Tests

9.6.1. Stressful for students & teachers to meet certain expectations

9.6.2. Takes up too much time

9.6.3. Biased

9.6.4. Does not enhance student learning

9.7. PISA

9.7.1. Compares test scores from around the world

9.7.1.1. How can these scores be compared when everyone learns differently based on their background?