France Prehistoric Periods by Aisyah Giselle Y6D

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France Prehistoric Periods by Aisyah Giselle Y6D by Mind Map: France Prehistoric Periods by Aisyah Giselle Y6D

1. Proto-Celtic, the latest common ancestor of all known Celtic languages, is considered to be spoken during this era. The spread of the iron-working led to the development of the Hallstatt culture (c. 700 to 500 BC) directly from the Urnfield. La Tène culture, flourishes during the late Iron Age (from 450 BC to the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC) in eastern France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. By the 2nd century BC, the Celtics France was named 'Gaul' and the people were called 'Gauls'. And the people to the north (in what is present-day Belgium) were called Belgae. Cultures from France start to spread to countries very efficiently and the people now have develop their knowledge to speak, and hunt. And this era, is the last prehistoric era, before the Ancient period.

2. Stone Age

2.1. Palaeolithic Period

2.1.1. Lower Palaeolithic

2.1.1.1. Several stone tools are discovered in this period. Tools like Olduwan, the earliest widespread stone tools in prehistory and Acheulean, an archaeological industry of stone tools which is known as a 'hand axe' since it is shaped like a pear rather than a normal axe. These tools are made by hominini species, most notably homo erectus and homo heidelbergensis. The Grotte du Vallonnet, a site near Menton, contained many simple stone tools which was approximately made 1 million to 1.05 million years ago.

2.1.2. Middle Palaeolithic

2.1.2.1. The Neanderthal was known to arrived in this era around 300,000 BC but eventually died about by 30,000 BC because the couldn't adapt to the cold weather. Numerous Neanderthal or "Mousterian" artifacts were found in this period. Though evidence of cannibalism among Neanderthals found in Neanderthal settlements Moula-Guercy and Les Pradelles.

2.1.3. Upper Palaeolithic

2.1.3.1. The earliest modern human, Cro-Magnons or European Early modern Human (EEMH), were present in Europe by 43,000 years ago, when Europe was warmer and the food is plentiful. Some say that their presence was very lucky. The Cro-Magnons brought sculptures, engraving, painting, body ornamentation, music and the painstaking decoration of utilitarian objects. Some of the oldest art, such as the cave paintings at Lascaux in southern France, are found during this period.

2.2. Mesolithic Period

2.2.1. From the Palaeolithic to the Mesolithic, the Magdalenian culture evolved. Archeologists are unsure whether Western Europe had an immigration. If gravettian or Epipalaeolithic immigrants, they are indeed Indo-European, then populations speaking non-Indo-European languages are obvious Paleolithic remnants. During this period/era, the disappearance of the Doggerland (which is an area of land which was submerged to the bottom of the north sea, connecting the Great Britain with Europe. It is caused by the rising sea level. Doggerland remained as an island before it too was flooded by a tsunami around 8,200 years ago by a very large landslide) affected the surrounding territories. The Doggerland population had to go as far as northern France and eastern Ireland to escape from the floods, which makes France more populated.

2.3. Neolithic Period

2.3.1. The Neolithic period lasted in northern Europe for approximately 3,000 years. It is a transitional period that included the 'adoption' of agriculture, the development of tools and pottery, tools began to be more polished, and the growth of larger, more complex settlements. Many people across Asia began to move to Europe, which makes France more populated. Some archaeologist believe that the mesolithic cultures began to introduced, coincided with the introduction of Indo-European language. Though, the language successfully introduced during the bronze age. Neolithic peoples in Europe are called "Old Europe". Many European Neolithic groups share basic characteristics, such as living in small-scale family-based communities. So they learned how it feels to have a family. Their way to survive is just to subsisting on domestic plants, like jackfruit, durian, banana, palm trees and other plants that can be found in the Amazon. They also subsisting domestic animals like wolves, wild boar, sheep, etc. The most common artefacts that can be found in this era is definitely pottery. Though there are many artefacts from various cultures such as the Linear Pottery Culture (c. 5500-4500 BC), The Rössen culture (c. 4500—4000 BC) , and the Chasséen Culture (4,500 - 3,500 BC; named after Chassey-le-Camp in Saône-et-Loire).

3. Metal Age

3.1. The Copper Age

3.1.1. During the Chalcolithic or copper age (a transitional age from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age) France shows evidence of the 'Seine-Oise-Marne' culture and the Beaker culture. The 'Seine-Oise-Marne' culture or 'SOM culture' (c. 3100 to 2400 BC) is the name given by archaeologist to the final culture in the Neolithic era, in Northen France around the Oise river (a river between Belgium and France) and Marne river (a river in France and also a tributary in Seine). It is most famous for its Megalithic tombs and gallery grave. In about 2600 BC, the Artenacian culture, a part of a larger European Megalithic Culture, developed in Dordogne, which possibly affected the Danubian peoples over Western France. Since they took over all Atlantic France and Belgium by 2400 BC. They also succeed to established a border with the Indo-European. They also starts to create Megaliths (large stones that is used to construct a structure. Stonehenge could be the example).

3.2. The Bronze Age

3.2.1. There are many cultures in this era. Such as Beaker culture (c. 2800–1900 BC), the Tumulus culture (c. 1600-1200 BC) and Urnfield culture (c. 1300-800 BC). they also started to develop their tools into a more strong tool. Basically the innovation of tools through time to time has a massive influence to the people. The more innovated or strong tool they have, the more they are accustomed with hunting. And hunting can give them advantage by letting them have an amount of food they need. Some archaeologist founded out that more people that is non Indo-European (quick recap, Indo-European is the name for France and other countries citizen's name) moved to France. including the Iberians in southern France and Spain, the Ligures on the Mediterranean coast, and the Vascons (Basques) in southwest France and Spain.

3.3. The Iron Age

4. Stone Age sources:

4.1. Prehistory of France - Wikipedia

4.2. Mesolithic man in France

4.3. HISTORY OF FRANCE

5. Metal Age sources:

5.1. Prehistory of France - Wikipedia

5.2. History of Europe - The Metal Ages

5.3. Iron Age France | Encyclopedia.com