Prehistoric Iraq Adheesha_Y6A_FA

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Prehistoric Iraq Adheesha_Y6A_FA by Mind Map: Prehistoric Iraq Adheesha_Y6A_FA

1. What is Prehistory?

1.1. The word prehistory literally meant "before history". It may refer to any period of time before the written history. Human prehistory is the period of time when humans start to develop anatomical characteristics and behaviour that leads to modern humans. This process includes when the humans learned how to use different kinds of tools to the invention of writing systems.

2. Iraq...?

2.1. Iraq is a country in West Asia, close to Turkey and Kuwait. Lots of ethnic groups come and stayed in Iraq, such as Kawliya, Turkomen, Chaldean, Shabaki, and some Irish people traced back as Iraqi. Iraq is also called the cradle of civilisation because prehistoric Iran, Mesopotamia, is the first place where complex urban centers grew. The history of Mesopotamia, however, is connected to the other countries, which is comprised of the modern nations of Egypt, Iran, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, the Gulf states and Turkey. We often refer to this region as the Near or Middle East.

3. Stone Age in Iraq

3.1. Paleolithic

3.1.1. In this period, it is known that present day Iraqi Kurdistan was inhabited by the human species Neanderthal.

3.1.2. It is proven by the evidence of settlement in sites such as the Shanidar Cave, located on Bradost Mountain, Iraq.

3.1.3. Remainings of ten Neanderthals were found there. The remainings were found under stacks of tools. These tools were predicted to be their property.

3.1.4. The tools included flakes (Used for removing animal skin) and "points" (Stone weapon capable of being thrown and used as a knife or spear). Bones of Mountain Goats and Tortoises are also found in the site.

3.1.5. It is not explained whether they stay at one place or keep migrating, but it seems that they stayed because of the whole situation which proves they stay at one cave.

3.2. Mesolithic

3.2.1. Not much is known about the Mesolithic period in Iraq, except that it shares the same culture as Iran as well.

3.2.2. Iraq and Iran on the time has the same culture, which is known as the "Zarzian Culture"

3.2.3. Zarzian culture is named after an archaelogical site in Iraq called Zarzi.

3.2.4. According to sources, the Zarzian hunts and eats animals like Onagers, Red Deer, Sheep, and more.

3.2.5. It was also known that the Zarzian uses Bow, Arrow, and Microliths. Microliths were small tools that were triangle-shaped and were mostly flint. Microliths can be used as weapons, and though not mentioned, I think it is used for arrowheads.

3.2.6. Scallop shells were also found, and it seems that the Zarzian used it as personal ornaments.

3.3. Neolithic

3.3.1. The Neolithic period is when prehistoric Iraq/Mesopotamia began to develop.

3.3.2. It is known that modern humans started settlement near the Tigris and Euphrates River, hence the name Mesopotamia which means between two rivers.

3.3.3. The early Mesopotamia shows proof of agriculture, which means humans started changing their hunting lifestyle to a farming one. Different tribes fight for fertile lands and fields. They still hunt animals, but they started to slowly depend on the farming instead of the hunted animals.

3.3.4. Agricultural activity is also proven by the presence of new objects, namely stone sickles, cutters, bowls which are usually used for harvesting, preparing and storing food

3.3.5. Their architecture also slowly became much more beautiful and sophisticated.

3.3.6. Later on the Neolithic period there was a widespread use of tools and clay pots and a specific culture begins to emerge. Stone tools and weapons became more good-looking. There were also manufacture of ceramics and stone tools.

3.4. Megalithic

3.4.1. Not much is known about the megalithic period of Iraq, but it is known that some cities in Mesopotamia such as Nineveh, Nimrud, and Dur-Sharrukin has megaliths built in it. Some of them are in the shape of a bull.

4. Metal Age In Iraq

4.1. Copper Age

4.1.1. Also known as The Chalcolithic Period, notably known for the transition from using stone tools to using copper tools.

4.1.2. Lots of cities were built in this period. The earliest city is often cited as Uruk, although Eridu and Ur have also been suggested.

4.1.3. The cities near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, as well as those founded further away, has systems of trade which resulted in wealthiness most notably in the region of Sumer in which the cities of Eridu, Uruk, Ur, Kish, Nuzi, Lagash, Nippur, and Ngirsu, and in Elam with its city of Susa were very prosper and rich.

4.1.4. In this period, the Sumerians invented the wheel and also modern writing. They also established kingships to replace priestly rule, and the first war in the world is recorded between the kingdoms of Sumer and Elam (3,200 BCE) with Sumer as the victor.

4.1.5. Increased prosperity also meant rise to beautifully designed temples and statues, pottery and figures, toys for children (such as dolls for girls and wheeled carts for boys), and even the use of personal seals (known as Cylinder Seals) as signature.

4.1.6. I also believe that the Mesopotamian religion was developed in this period. Mesopotamian people were polytheistic, which means they believe in more than one god. Mesopotamia’s gods were humans; they were human in form and characteristics. Although all powerful, the gods behaved much like human. They were immortal, but they could be hurt and murdered. Each god had charge of some aspect of existence according to a set of rules that ensured the continued functioning of the Earth.

4.2. Bronze Age

4.2.1. During this period, bronze replaced copper as the material from which tools and weapons were made.

4.2.2. This age also saw a number of specific and momentous inventions: the plough and the wheel, the chariot and the sailboat, and the cylinder-seal, the single most distinctive art form of ancient Mesopotamia and a pervasive demonstration of the importance of property ownership and business in the country’s daily life. .

4.2.3. The expansion of the Assyrian Kingdoms (Assur, Nimrud, Sharrukin, Dur, and Nineveh) and the rise of the Babylonian Dynasty (centered in Babylon and Chaldea) caused warfare. The Guti Tribe, fierce nomads who succeeded in overthrowing the Akkadian Empire, dominated the politics of Mesopotamia until they were defeated by the allied forces of the kings of Sumer. Hammurabi, King of Babylon rose to conquer Mesopotamia and reign for 43 years.

4.2.4. The rest of the Bronze age were spent with warfare, and lots of tribes overthrowing each other to control the well known region.

4.3. Iron Age

4.3.1. This age increased the use of iron materials and weapons. It caused massive changes in ancient society in nearly all areas including military, agriculture, religion, art, and many other aspects of daily life.

4.3.2. Iron was way lighter and stronger than bronze which meant it made much more effective tools and cutting weapons. Armies which had widespread iron weapons had significant advantages and can easily defeat those who used bronze tools.

4.3.3. This also saw the time when Mesopotamia faded away, as it was conquered by the Persians in this age. Sometime later in the Classical Antiquity, Mesopotamia is fully gone, replaced by Muslim rule and would slowly turn to present day Iraq and Iran.

5. Resources

5.1. What is PREHISTORY? What does PREHISTORY mean? PREHISTORY meaning, definition & explanation




5.5. The Shanidar Neanderthals, by Erik Trinkaus