Chinese Pre-History

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Chinese Pre-History by Mind Map: Chinese Pre-History

1. Chinese Pre-History

1.1. According to the chronological order, the prehistoric times of China ranged from 1.7 million years ago to the 21st century BC, which were divided into the Paleolithic Age, the Neolithic Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron age.

2. Chinese culture

2.1. The prehistoric culture of China refers to the ancient myths and legends before the emergence of Chinese characters, including Pan Gu Creating Heaven and Earth, Goddess Nv Wa Melting Down Rocks to Repair the Sky and Three Wise Kings and Five August Emperors.

3. Early Mankind in China

3.1. The emergence of prehistoric mankind (ape men and Homo sapiens) was the elementary stage of prehistoric times. These were represented by 'Yuanmou Man' who lived 1.7 million years ago in today's Yunnan Province, south-west China, 'Lantian Man' who lived in the early Paleolithic Age, fossils of which were discovered in North China's Shaanxi Province, and 'Peking Man' who lived about 500,000 years ago.

3.2. Fossils of the 'Peking Man' were found in Zhoukoudian in the south-west of Beijing. A museum (the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian) was set up to keep the excavated items. The ape men widely used chipped stone implements and lived a gathering and hunting lifestyle according to archaeological evidence; they even mastered how to use fire to improve their living environment. The ape men were linked by blood lineage and formed loose primitive tribes later.

4. Stone Age -Paleolithic Age

4.1. The Paleolithic Age dates back from 2.5 million to 10,000 years ago, during which the matriarchal clan society was formed, a social system in which the mother was head of the family and descent was traced through the mother's side of the family.

4.2. The mankind of the Paleolithic Age is represented by 'Hetao Man' who lived about 500,000 to 350,000 years ago, the fossils of which were dug up in North China's Inner Mongolia, 'Liujiang Man', whose fossils were discovered in Liuzhou, two hours away from Guilin, in South China's Guangxi Province, 'Zhiyu Man', and cavemen who lived about 300,000 years ago in caves, hence the name.

4.3. When the chipped stone implements were replaced by polished stone implements, the level of the productive force was remarkably improved during the Paleolithic Age. As primitive farming, stock farming and handicrafts emerged, mankind started to settle down in residences.

5. Stone Age -Neolithic Age

5.1. The Neolithic Age dates back from 18,000 to 4,000 years ago, during which the patriarchal clan society, a social system in which males were the primary authority figures and were central to social organization, was formed.

5.2. The level of productive force in the Neolithic Age was much more advanced than the previous times, which was reflected in the development of agricultural production, the expansion of stock farming, the emergence of ceramics and silk products, and the formation of social divisions of labor.

5.3. The patriarchal family commune appeared in the Neolithic Age and showed the transition of the polygamous marriage to monogamy, where the lines of descent were traced through the father's side of the family and property was inherited by the male lineage. As the private ownership of property emerged, the gap between the rich and the poor was greatly deepened in the patriarchal clan society, which led to the disintegration of primitive society and the emergence of communities.

5.4. The cultural heritages of the matriarchal clan society are scattered in different parts of China, highlighted by the Peiligang culture, the Cishan culture, the Yangshao culture and the Longshan culture.

6. Neolithic Age culture

6.1. The Peiligang culture existed from 7000 to 5000 BC along the middle stretch of the Yellow River in today's Henan Province, in central China, and it is the oldest Neolithic culture. The culture practiced agriculture and raised livestock; the people hunted animals and fished for carp. They had separate residential and burial areas. The Peiligang culture was the earliest culture to have made pottery.

6.2. The Cishan culture was a name given to a Neolithic community found in Cishan in North China's Hebei Province. The Cishan culture existed from 5400 to 5100 BC. Like the Peiligang culture, the Cishan culture practiced agriculture in the form of millet. The people used stone sickles, shovels and knives as their main agricultural tools, and made pottery by hand.

6.3. The Yangshao culture refers to a Neolithic community found along the middle stretch of the Yellow River from Gansu Province to Hainan Province, which existed from 5000 to 3000 BC. The Yangshao people grew rice and millet as well as raising pigs, cattle and horses. The art of pottery making was developed and refined. Excavated pottery wares showed they knew to paint the black pottery with facial and animal designs to make them look delicate and beautiful.

7. Stone Age -Mesolithic Age

7.1. The Middle-Stone-Age was the end of Ice age and beginning of our current earth life. All prehistoric animal have died, rain deers migrated to north, many animals and humans migrated to south. Around that time Humans from Central Asia also migrated to North and South America.

7.2. Artifacts from Mesolithic age shows that wild animals were domesticated around this time. The Moojoon Stone Pictures from Sagil, Uvs province is one of the most studies site you will find in Mongolia.

8. Copper Age - Eneolithic

8.1. Ancient humans first used copper before using bronze and iron since it was easily accessible. In world history there is a brief period belongs to Eneolithic era. Prehistoric Mongols also passed through this time. You can find many artifacts related to this period from Mania, Umune-Gobi.

8.2. The population during copper age has been described as paleomongolid in the east of what is now Mongolia, and as europid in the west.

9. Bronze Age

9.1. The people who lived in this era made items using bronze.

9.2. Resent Archeological studies done in central Mongolia scientists found ancient bronze helmets, two people shaped bronze mirror, bronze and bone sharp objects.

9.3. The Bronze helmet found from Egiin Gol located at Hutran-Undur, Bulgan province. Some artifacts found from this site can also be tighted to more earier human settlers. For example bone items found from Egiin Gol could be from 10-9th c. BC based on its made and components

9.4. There are about 700 Bronze era Deer Monument across Euro-Asia. These Monuments are about 1-4 meter tall has drawing of deers, horses and others.

10. Iron Age

10.1. In the late Iron age time male dominated since the use of military was important part of their life. Many monument and artifacts found in this time dedicated to male heroes and military personnel.

10.2. As archeological study become more and more advanced we can certainly dig deeper and deeper into our past history.

10.3. Although Mongolians have great number of studies done in prehistoric humans, the Prehistoric Sites in Mongolia is one of the least studied places in the world. Only recently people around the world have been exploring these facts and doing some scientific studies.

11. Prehistory Definition

11.1. Prehistoric means, something from the time before history was recorded.

11.2. Prehistory means to the period of time before civilization and writing.