Teaching, Learning, and Development MindMap

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Teaching, Learning, and Development MindMap by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning, and Development MindMap

1. Week 1~ Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Reflective Practice

1.1.1. Characteristics of Reflective Practitioners Are open-minded and amenable to change Embrace self-enquiry Feel they have an ethical responsibility to best facilitate their students’ learning Choose to analyze and reflect on their practice Assess the effects of their teaching in order to improve their practice

1.2. Educational Psychology

1.2.1. Uses knowledge and methods of psychology and related disciplines to study teaching and learning

1.2.2. 4 common places of education Teacher Topic Setting Student

1.2.3. Central topics Learning and Cognition Development Social and Cultural Influences Motivation Behaviour/Classroom Management Individual Differences Assessment and Evaluation Teaching and Instruction Psychological Foundations of Curricula

1.3. Research Process

1.3.1. 5 Steps of Research Process Step 1~ Observation of Phenomena: An educational phenomenon does not fit within current explanations Step 2~ Formation of Questions: Research questions are generated Step 3~ Application of Research Methods: Research methods reveal relationships between phenomena Step 4~ Development of Guiding Principles: Similar research outcomes regarding the same topic become guiding principles Step 5~ Development of Theories: Collections of principles about related phenomena merge into theories

1.4. Teacher Planning

1.4.1. Curriculum Planning Top-Down Approach Determine the curricula for the year Determine the curricula for each term Break the curricula down into units Determine what will be taught on a daily basis

1.4.2. Instructional Planning Teacher Centred Approach ~ Teacher determines content, provides direction, and sets academic and social tone Student Centred Approach ~ Teacher adopts constructivist perspective and acknowledges that students actively construct their own understandings

1.5. Week 1 Reading Takeaways

1.5.1. Naming the Problem The more structured we make the environment, the more structure the students need The more we decide for students, the more they expect us to decide The more motivation we provide, the less they find within themselves The more responsibility for learning we try to assume, the less they accept on their own The more control we exert, the more restive their response

1.5.2. Identifying the Way Ahead Teachers need to inquire and thereby be treated as professional learners themselves

1.5.3. Recognize the Tensions for Teachers Without a supportive forum for experimentation to help them onwards, teachers are likely to fall back on archetypal judgements of their role

1.5.4. Reviewing Our Planning It’s about planning for what learners do rather than for what teachers do

1.5.5. Recognize the Reservations “They haven’t got the skills.” Rather than talk about students in terms of deficits, can we think about their experience to date and whether we have helped them master it yet? “They’re not mature enough yet!” So will we stand by and wait? Or will we offer the experiences that help them mature? “It’s unrealistic to give kids absolute freedom!” That seems like an extreme suggestion – is there anything between the extremes? “We’ve got to get on with covering the curriculum.” So what shall we do with the finding that learners who plan and reflect the most get 30 per cent better scores in public examination tasks?

2. Week 2 ~ Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Principles of development

2.1.1. Orderly progression / gradual process There is a higher order function called a Prefrontal Cortex, which controls decision-making, goal setting, controlling attention, cognitive flexibility, information processing, and managing risk-taking... it takes about 20 years to become fully functional Early mastery of literacy and numeracy skills predict future academic success

2.1.2. Quantitative and qualitative changes

2.1.3. Individuals develop at different rates If a student is having difficulty, ask yourself the following questions: 1. Has the student acquired the prerequisite skills? 2. Does the student typically learn slower than others? 3. Has the student had enough practice? 4. Was the material presented in meaningful ways?

2.2. Week 2 Reading Takeaways

2.2.1. Growth Mindset: Intelligence can be developed Leads to a desire to learn and therefore a tendency to: Embrace challenges Persist in the face of setbacks See effort as the path to mastery Learn from criticism Find lessons and inspiration in the success of others

3. Week 3~ Views of Learning: Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

3.1. Social Cognitivism

3.1.1. Cognitive Learning A learning theory that focuses on how information is received, organized, stored, and retrieved by the mind Instruction should be organized, sequenced, and presented in a manner that is understandable and meaningful to the learner. It emphasizes retention and recall through the use of quality teaching practices Principles of cognitivism Determine what students should know beforehand in order to benefit them in the learning process Determine teaching strategies that will help students understand content and it will cue their memory Determine the goal you want in the end. Examples: retention

3.1.2. Cognitive Learning Theorists Jerome Bruner: research specialist in psychology Piaget's Four Stages: 1. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years old): The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions. An infant progresses from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic through toward the end of the stage 2. Pre-operational Stage (2 to 7 years old): The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 years old): The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets 4. Formal Operational Stage (11 years to adulthood): The adolescent reasons in more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways

3.2. Constructivism

3.2.1. A learning theory that equates learning with creating meaning from experience. Learning is more meaningful to students when they are able to interact with a problem or concept

3.2.2. Utilizes interactive teaching strategies to create meaningful contexts that help students construct knowledge based on their own experiences

3.3. Behaviourist

3.3.1. A learning theory based on the idea that behaviour can be controlled or modified based on the antecedents and consequences of a behaviour

3.3.2. Principle of behaviourism: Determine what behaviours you want your students to exhibit. Example: come to class on time, participate in class discussion Determine what reinforces/consequences for his students. Example: reward candy to those who exhibit expected behaviours

3.4. Week 3 Reading Takeaways

3.4.1. Reciprocal Determinism A model composed of three factors that influence behaviour: the environment, the individual, and the behaviour itself An individual's behaviour influences and is influenced by both the social world and personal characteristics The teachers are forced to alter the school environment for certain children

4. Week 4~ First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

4.1. Self-Regulation

4.1.1. How to support students self regulated learning: Tasks: they should be complex Control: students make decisions, have choices, and take responsibility for planning, setting goals, judging progress Self-Evaluation: students monitor their own process and outcomes and learn to adjust their efforts in order to attain goals Collaboration: students and teachers engage in shared problem-solving

4.2. Features of Communities of Learners

4.2.1. Job-embedded, collaborative, require active learning, student-centerer, emphasize reflective dialogue, engage in a socially constructivist learning process, improve student achievement

4.3. Exemplary Learning Environments

4.3.1. Teachers can improve students achievement by: 1. Designing classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning 2. Making wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ 3. Making effective use of classroom management techniques

4.3.2. Why learning environments are important? Academic success if dependent on the learning environment Creating exemplary learning environments require good planning and good classroom management Goal of classroom management is to provide all students with optimum opportunities for learning Exemplary learning environments are especially important for student with exceptionalities

4.4. Conditions to Foster Well-Being in the Classroom

4.4.1. Personal development, flexibility and control, social interaction, optimal challenge, positive classroom culture, valued contribution, instructor support, access to resources, real life learning

4.5. Week 4 Reading Takeaways

4.5.1. What do you want as an educator? The classroom environment and structure demand as much attention as the tools of assessment and the selection of instructional materials The significance of being physically close to students as they work How to praise students’ learning performance How to apply active listening techniques with students How to ask questions, give compliments or make statements related to a student’s personal interest or experience How to promote the positive behaviour you wish or stop a student’s negative behaviour in a calm and courteous manner

5. Week 5~ Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

5.1. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive skills

5.1.1. Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives

5.1.2. 1. Knowledge (remembering)

5.1.3. 2. Comprehension (understanding)

5.1.4. 3. Application (applying)

5.1.5. 4. Analysis (analyzing)

5.1.6. 5. Synthesis (creating)

5.1.7. 6. Evaluation (evaluating)

5.2. Constructivist based classrooms

5.2.1. Constructivist views of learning consist of: Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge and they actively seek meaning Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development

5.2.2. Applications of Constructivist-based classrooms: Inquiry-based learning Instructional type = minimally direct instruction Key elements = exploration, invention, application Students prior knowledge/skills = not important... students can produce knowledge from observation Teacher role = leader, coach, model, facilitator. Teacher is the source of driving questions Student role = interprets, explains, hypothesizing, designing and directing own tasks, sharing authority for answers Specific outcomes = conceptual understanding of principals, comprehension of the nature of inquiry and grasp of the applications of knowledge Problem-based learning Instructional type = minimally direct instruction Key elements = identification problems, activating prior knowledge, elaboration of knowledge Students prior knowledge/skills = prior knowledge and skills application is important Teacher role = facilitator and coach rather than leader Student role = determining whether a problem exists, creating an exact statement of the problem, identifying information, data and learning goals. Students are the source of driving questions Specific outcomes = effective problem-solving skills, self-direction, lifelong learning skills, effective collaborations

5.2.3. Ways to create constructivist-based classrooms: Have complex, challenging learning environments Use real world situations Promote social negotiations and collaborative work Represent the content in multiple ways Make students aware of the knowledge construction process. This will help them become self-regulated learners

5.3. Universal Instructional Design (UID)

5.3.1. Three primary principles that guide UID: Provide multiple means of representation: reception, language, expressions, and symbols. Encourages comprehension Provide multiple means of action and expression: physical action, expression and communication. Encourages function Provide multiple means of engagement: recruiting interest, sustaining effort and persistence. Encourages self-regulation

5.3.2. Two types of instruction for UID: Developmentally appropriate schools. More active learning; more playful learning; integrated curricula; allowing the child to explore Direct instruction schools More passive learners,;learning is more compartmentalized where at a certain time of day means a certain subject is taught (ex. 10am is math time); the idea that the child is coming in with a clean slate and it's the teacher's responsibility to fill it There are clear learning objectives, well-planned lessons, explicit teaching, and lots of practice

5.4. Week 5 Reading Takeaways

5.4.1. Differentiating Learning Environments Making sure there are places in the room to work quietly and without distraction, as well as places that invite student collaboration; Providing materials that reflect a variety of cultures and home settings; Setting out clear guidelines for independent work that matches individual needs; Developing routines that allow students to get help when teachers are busy with other students and cannot help them immediately; and Helping students understand that some learners need to move around to learn, while others do better sitting quietly

6. Week 6~ Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

6.1. Accommodating students

6.1.1. Understand the physical and emotional accommodations that your students need in order to have an effective classroom environment

6.2. Student Assessment

6.2.1. Ensuring that you assess students so that you are grading their work, and not the amount of assistance they need

6.2.2. Assessment serves different purposes at different times It may be used to find out what students already know and can do It may be used to help students improve their learning It may be used to let students and their parents know how much they have learned within a prescribed amount of time

6.2.3. Backward Design Identify desired results Teacher must define goals, objectives, and the "enduring understanding" Teacher must have leverage, which is asking yourself... will this provide knowledge and skills that will be of value in multiple disciplines? Teacher must help students prepare for the next level Determine acceptable evidence of competency in the outcomes and results Define what forms of assessment will demonstrate that the student acquired the knowledge, understanding, and skills to answer the questions 3 types of assessment according to Wiggins and McTighe: Plan learning experiences and instruction Definition of knowledge (know-that), skills and procedures (know-how) students ought to master Definition of learning/teaching activities (scenarios)

6.3. 4 questions to ask to link assessment and instruction

6.3.1. What is the specific learning objective?

6.3.2. What will my assessment question be?

6.3.3. What will the topical unit and lesson plans be?

6.3.4. What will my instructional method be?

6.4. Week 6 Reading Takeaways

6.4.1. Integrated Learning in the Classroom Guideline 1 - Think Big Guideline 2 - Think Real World Guideline 3 - Think Broad Context About Literacy As teachers work with curriculum and instruction in a connected, cohesive way, the opportunities for students to learn deeply, pursue areas of interest and communicate their thinking will become embedded in the school day

6.5. 2

7. Week 7~ Individual Differences - Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

7.1. Ways to support students

7.1.1. Trifecta of support. To understand the whole child, you have to understand each of these three things: School Need to help the student develop physically, social/emotionally, and cognitively Systems Three instructional processes: Universal Design for Learning (UDL), Differentiated Instruction, Response to Intervention Communities Inclusion is important because all children are different and all children can learn

7.1.2. Assistive technology

7.1.3. Special Education Plans made by the Special Education Advisory Committee (SEAC)

7.2. Special Education

7.2.1. Accommodating the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities; Specialized instruction based on the assessment of students' abilities

7.3. Levels of Exceptionalities

7.3.1. High-Incidence Exceptionalities include mild disabilities which typically include learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, giftedness, and intellectual disabilities

7.4. Week 7 Reading Takeaways

7.4.1. Low-Incidence Exceptionalities include moderate and sever disabilities which typically include autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairments, and multiple disabilities

7.4.2. 3 elements for students to learn best Personalization – Education that puts the learner at the centre, providing assessment and instruction that are tailored to students’ particular learning and motivational needs. Precision – A system that links “assessment for learning” to evidence-informed instruction on a daily basis, in the service of providing instruction that is precise to the level of readiness and the learning needs of the individual student. Professional learning – Focused, ongoing learning for every educator “in context”, to link new conceptions of instructional practice with assessment of student learning.

8. Week 8~ Socio-Cultural Considerations

8.1. Considering the student as an individual

8.1.1. You have to create programming that will cater to each student, this is known as Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Recognition Learning Strategic Learning Affective Learning Use of SATs in Canada

8.2. Culturally responsive practice

8.2.1. A culturally responsive practice has a broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes

8.3. Relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and education

8.3.1. Children from low SES homes have lower development, economic hardships, scarcity of resources, and are more likely to experience authoritarian parenting style

8.3.2. Ways that a teacher can combat the negative influences of SES: Develop a genuine relationship with the student Be empathetic, respectful, and recognized the shared humanity with the student Be open-minded with the students and teachers, do not judge them Recognize the hardships that low SES students and families go through Have realistic expectations of the student and the family, do not discriminate against them Acquire the resources and supports that can help these students

8.4. Multicultural education

8.4.1. Teachers must develop cultural understanding and mutual respect with all students

8.4.2. 3 different views of multicultural education: Diversity Valued: no culture is considered dominant Dominant Culture Stressed: focus is stressed on how to survive in this world Diversity and Dominant Culture: main goal is to strike a balance between all cultures

8.4.3. Dimensions of multicultural education: content integration, equity pedagogy, empowering school culture and social structure, prejudice education, knowledge construction process

8.5. Aboriginal Education

8.5.1. The factors that put Aboriginal students at risk: early school failures, moving from school to school, lack of parent support, lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies, living in remote communities, lack of resources, special needs

8.6. Week 8 Reading Takeaways

8.6.1. The Dangers of a Single Story https://www.ethos3.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Blog-Image-03-1024x600.jpg

9. Week 9~ End of School Year

9.1. Use of SATs in Canada

9.1.1. Federal: achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science)

9.1.2. Provincial/Territorial: different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels

9.2. Test types

9.2.1. Criterion-referenced: student's score determined by comparing performance to established criteria

9.2.2. Norm-referenced: student's score determined by comparing performance to that of other students

9.3. Characteristics of well-designed SATs

9.3.1. Based on the same classroom curriculum framework, address the same cognitive demands, incorporate similar tasks, use common standards for judging quality of work, use same benchmarks to represent learning over time

9.3.2. SATs should enhance teaching and learning, improve curricular designs, and be minimally intrusive

9.4. Preparing students for SATs

9.4.1. Convey positive attitudes about testing, teach test-taking skills, simulate use of time limits during testing, familiarize students with types of questions used, involve students in marking questions of each types

9.5. Week 9 Reading Takeaways

9.5.1. Standardized testing has value in today’s society Aptitude testing for admission into colleges and universities seems to be especially effective as quantitative research has established links between such testing and later success at post-secondary institutions

9.5.2. Standardized tests seem to be weaker at being able to correctly indicate how much a specific student has learned Achievement testing has issues especially related to situational/environmental factors, personal/emotional factors, and grade-spread requirement that may make applicability difficult to ascertain. That is, standardized testing may be best at determining aptitude or future ability in an individual and also good at examining a school district’s efficaciousness.