Natural Sciences

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Natural Sciences by Mind Map: Natural Sciences

1. Scope & Application( Mo)

1.1. System of knowledge of the natural world using observation , reason and imagination

1.1.1. Life science

1.1.1.1. Biology

1.1.1.1.1. Phenomena related to living organisms

1.1.2. Physical science

1.1.2.1. Physics

1.1.2.1.1. Fundamental constituent of universe

1.1.2.2. Chemistry

1.1.2.2.1. study of matter at the atomic scale

1.1.2.3. Astronomy

1.1.2.3.1. celestial objects and phenomena in the space

1.1.2.4. Earth science

1.1.2.4.1. science related to the Earth

1.2. Social Function

1.2.1. Describe : using inductive reasoning , scientists derive how the world works

1.2.2. Predictive : scientists allow us to make description about what will or won't work

1.2.3. New finding and solving

1.2.3.1. Understanding of nature patterns

1.2.3.1.1. from chemical and physical background

1.2.3.1.2. from theory

1.2.3.2. Understanding nature behaviours

1.3. Ethical consideration

1.3.1. Religion

1.3.1.1. Misconception : evolutionary theory

1.3.2. Beliefs

1.3.2.1. Western society's analytic traditions: converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements

1.3.2.2. Modern Society: more classical approaches

1.4. Limits

1.4.1. Shared knowledge : scientists share their results

1.4.2. Sense experience

1.4.3. Dependent of culture

1.5. Unanswered questions

1.5.1. What is the universe made of ?

1.5.2. How did life begin ?

2. Historical Development (Nairo)

2.1. "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions"

2.1.1. author: Thomas Kuhn

2.1.1.1. American physicist and historian of science

2.1.2. 1962: published the book

2.1.3. New claim: the development of scientific discovery was cyclical

2.1.3.1. this system had a recognisable structure

2.1.3.1.1. successive periods of "normal" and "extraordinary" science

2.1.3.1.2. think using the analogy of the Earth's climate change

2.1.4. Old Claim: History of science was linear

2.1.4.1. a rational progression that is characterised by the accumulation of knowledge

2.1.5. became the origin of the word "paradigm shift"

2.1.5.1. definition: "a fundamental change in approach or underlying assumptions"

3. Language & Concepts

3.1. The International System of Units

3.1.1. It is not static but evolves to match the world's increasingly demanding requirements for measurement.

3.1.1.1. Base Units

3.1.1.1.1. Formed by 7 well defined units

3.1.1.2. Prefixes

3.1.1.3. Derived Units

3.1.1.3.1. Formed by combining the base units according to the algebraic relations linking the corresponding quantities.

3.2. Brief history of the SI

3.2.1. French Revolution

3.2.1.1. decimal matrix system

3.2.2. 22 June 1799

3.2.2.1. the metre and the kilogram

3.2.3. 1832

3.2.3.1. GAUSS

3.2.3.1.1. Promotion of the matrix system

3.2.3.1.2. Second defined in astronomy

3.2.4. 1860

3.2.4.1. The active leadership of Maxwell and Thomson(BAAS, now BSA)

3.2.4.1.1. Electricity and Magnetism studies were further developed

3.2.4.1.2. Formulated the requirement for a coherent system of units with base units and derived units

3.2.5. 1874

3.2.5.1. BAAS

3.2.5.1.1. introduced the CGS system, a three-dimensional coherent unit system

3.2.6. 1880s

3.2.6.1. the BAAS and the International Electrical Congress

3.2.6.1.1. approved a mutually coherent set of practical units

3.2.7. 20 May 1875

3.2.7.1. Signing of the Metre Convention

3.2.8. 1889

3.2.8.1. the 1st CGPM sanctioned the international prototypes for the metre and the kilogram.

3.2.8.2. Also sanctioned the astronomical second as the unit of time

3.2.9. 1901

3.2.9.1. Giorgi

3.2.9.1.1. Adding to the three base units a fourth unit, of an electrical nature such as the ampere or the ohm, and rewriting the equations occurring in electromagnetism in the so-called rationalised form.

3.2.10. 1921

3.2.10.1. The revision of the Metre Convention

3.2.11. 1939

3.2.11.1. subsequent creation of the Consultative Committee for Electricity (CCE, now CCEM)

3.2.11.2. The MKSA system

3.2.11.2.1. the adoption of a four-dimensional system

3.2.12. 1946

3.2.12.1. Approval of the MKSA system

3.2.13. 1948

3.2.13.1. International inquiry by the BIPM

3.2.14. 1954

3.2.14.1. the 10th CGPM

3.2.15. 1960

3.2.15.1. The name of SI was given

3.2.16. 1971

3.2.16.1. The current version of the SI was completed by adding the mole as the base unit

3.3. Comparing with language in Human Sciences / Literature(Personal Knowledge)

3.3.1. Lots of technical terms are used

3.3.2. Formulas and Diagrams are used to explain

3.3.3. There isn't any literature level of language- no imagery and fancy language

3.3.4. Literature can be something that is out of imagination, but Science language will be purely technical and facts

3.4. Conventions

3.4.1. DIAGRAM

3.4.2. SYMBOLS

3.4.3. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

3.4.4. LATIN EXPRESSIONS in science

4. Methodology (Mahima)

4.1. Science and Pseudoscience

4.1.1. Karl Popper taught us how to best test the world

4.1.1.1. Popper looked at two famous scientists of the time: Einstein and Freud, who had two very different ways of looking at the world.

4.1.1.1.1. Freud would read the past differently and then come up with conclusions. Einstein on the other hand look at the present and came up with future outcomes.

4.1.1.2. he also taught us a lot about knowledge

4.1.1.2.1. certainty never possible in the first place. makes you close your mind

4.1.1.2.2. knowledge based on probability and contingency

4.1.2. Conjectures - imaginative hypothesis

4.1.2.1. confirmation is tentative and cannot prove a law

4.1.2.2. genuine scientific conjectures are testable

4.1.3. Refutations - asymmetry between confirmation and falsification

4.1.3.1. refutation is decisive as on countering the theory can prove the theory

4.2. Theory vs Law

4.2.1. laws resist change as they wouldn't have been adopted if they didn't fit the data. though laws can be changed slightly to fit new data

4.2.2. a theory will never become a law but the development of a law can create theories

4.2.2.1. theories under go much ridicule before it can be accepted by the scientific community

4.2.3. scientific law predicts the results of certain initial conditions

4.2.4. scientific theory tries to provide the most logical answer to why things happen as they do

4.2.5. law predicts what happens. Theory says why it happens

4.2.6. scientist favour the theory that supports most data

4.2.7. vulnerability to netter explanations doesn't weaken the theory

4.2.8. a good scientific law works efficiently without knowing why it works. a good scientific theory is one that can withstand much accusations and is able to yield to better theories

4.2.9. science needs both laws and theories to understand the whole picture

4.3. Kuhn's Paradigm Shift

4.3.1. observations are contained within a theory

4.3.1.1. the theory is a story that explains the meaning or significance of the observations

4.3.1.1.1. the dominant theory in a discipline is called a paradigm

4.3.2. the production of science is not a linear process

4.4. Accuracy and Precision

4.4.1. distinction between accuracy and precision is critical for science.

4.4.2. accuracy = how close you come to the correct result

4.4.2.1. accuracy improves with tools that are calibrated correctly and that you are well trained on

4.4.2.1.1. if you have accuracy you have the correct result

4.4.3. precision= how often you can achieve that result using the same method

4.4.3.1. precision improves with more finely incremented tools that require less estimation

4.4.3.1.1. you can have precision but not the correct result.

4.4.4. precision and accuracy important on a microscopic level in research or in engineering

4.4.4.1. can make improvements by investing more money in better quality equipment/technology. this reduces uncertainty

4.5. General Info

4.5.1. Two types of Natural Science

4.5.1.1. rationalism: REASON is the most important WOk

4.5.1.2. empiricism: EXPERIENCE is an important source of knowledge.

4.5.2. Scientific Method

4.5.2.1. science uses distinctive method to develop testable models which capture essential features of reality. all likely backed with evidence

4.5.2.2. non science simply reproduces reality.

4.5.3. Inductivism (the use of reasoning in science)

4.5.3.1. observations - observing and classifying

4.5.3.2. hypothesis- means assumption.

4.5.3.3. experiment is the test done to make observations and is based on the hypothesis. has to be CONTROLLABLE/ MEASURABLE/ REPEATABLE

4.5.3.4. Law is discovered when experimental results confirm the original/researchers hypothesis

4.5.3.5. Theory explains and unifies various laws using underlying principles.

4.5.3.6. anomaly is an observation that contradicts the accepted theory

4.5.4. Testing the Hypothesis

4.5.4.1. 1.confim bias

4.5.4.1.1. look for evidence that can falsify your hypothesis

4.5.4.2. 2. Background assumptions

4.5.4.2.1. all assumptions have to be validated to be considered adequate

4.5.4.3. 3. Consistency of Hypotheses

4.5.4.3.1. if there are two competing theories that essentially are the same thing use the one that is the most simple. This is called principle of simplicity.

4.5.5. Law and Problem of Induction

4.5.5.1. problem of generalisation

4.5.5.1.1. 1.Practical problems

4.5.5.1.2. 2. theoretical problems

4.5.6. Observation vs Hypothesis

4.5.6.1. 1.Reject hypothesis (background knowledge wrong)

4.5.6.2. 2. Reject Observations ( experimental errors)

4.5.6.3. 3. accept both but make an auxiliary hypothesis

4.5.6.3.1. auxiliary hypothesis can save a false theory by saying that it explains new observations

5. Personal Knowledge (Hubert)

5.1. Inventions

5.1.1. Pot in pot cooling system

5.1.1.1. Biology, chemistry and geology combined with traditional knowledge of claypots

5.1.2. Velcro

5.1.2.1. Found seeds on dog's vest and noticed that the seeds had tiny hooks which stuck to the fabric under a microscope

5.1.2.1.1. One strip has many hooks, one strip has loops (Velcro)

5.1.3. Incandescent Light Bulb

5.1.3.1. Used a lower current, smaller carbonised fiber and better vacum inside bulb

5.2. Inventions/ Discoveries

5.2.1. Lead to discoveries

5.2.1.1. Telescope

5.2.1.1.1. Discovery mountains of the moon

5.2.1.2. Benjamin Franklin's Discovery of lightning

5.2.1.2.1. Creation of lighting rod

5.2.2. Many things we don't think about the knowledge behind it because we're so use to them

5.3. Importance in life

5.3.1. Help us learn more about the world

5.3.1.1. Telescope

5.3.2. Help protect us

5.3.2.1. Lighting rod

5.3.3. Make our lives easier

5.3.3.1. Pot in pot cooling system

5.3.3.2. Velcro

5.3.3.3. Incandescent Light Bulb