Online Mind Mapping and Brainstorming

Create your own awesome maps

Online Mind Mapping and Brainstorming

Even on the go

with our free apps for iPhone, iPad and Android

Get Started

Already have an account? Log In

The Clean Coder by Robert C. Martin: Book Notes by Mind Map: The Clean Coder by Robert C.
Martin: Book Notes
5.0 stars - 2 reviews range from 0 to 5

The Clean Coder by Robert C. Martin: Book Notes


Coding Professionalism

Your code must work, Never write 3am code: It's crap even if it works, and that crap will be copied and pasted everywhere, Never write code when distracted with personal thoughts, Same analogy for driving, driving needs your focus, don't drive when distracted, Learn how to manage your time with those problems. Spend some blocks of time throughout the day working on both to ease your mind and allow you to code, Avoid the 'zone', True the zone will allow you to write more code however that's not an indicator your more productive, The zone causes tunnel vision and causes you to lose sight of the big picture, This will cause you to revisit this code a lot which defeats the purpose of the increase in code, Pair programming makes it near impossible to enter the zone, Avoid listening to music and headphones - this doesn't usually help you code, it helps you stay in the zone which is undesired, The zone causes you to be rude to interruptions - extremely unprofessional to be rude, Pairing helps avoid or deal with interruptions to allow the other to be productive and help you get back into context after the interruption, TDD helps you stay in context as well, having a failing test to gain context, this will help with interruptions, Writers Block, Pair Program, Reduce debugging time to a minimum, Do this with TDD, Layers constantly retrying cases, surgeons re-opening up patients are unprofessional, constantly having to debug your code is unprofessional, No False Delivery, Worst unprofessionalism of all

Your code must solve the problem set for you by the customer, Not the requirements given, it is up to you to negotiate with the customer the true solution to their problem

Your code needs to follow solid engineering principles

Your code must be readable by other programmers (clean code)

Help, Help Others, your responsibility to be available to help each other, unprofessional to sequester yourself in a cubicle and refuse the queries of others, Your work is not so important that you cannot lend some of your time to help others, If needed - set office hours, Offer to help, don't wait to be asked, Accept Help, Mentor junior developers personally

Test Driven Development

It just works!, Surgeons don't have to defend hand-washing, Developers don't have to defend TDD

3 Laws, You are not allowed to write any production code until you have first written a failing unit test, You are not allowed to write more of a unit test than is sufficient to fail -- and not compiling is failing., You are not allowed to write more production code that is sufficient to pass the currently failing unit test

Benefits, Certainty, tens of unit tests written a day makes me certain the code works when I wrote it and still works today, Defect Injection Rate, Proven to reduce the amount of bugs dramatically, Courage, Bad code is scary to fix without unit tests so often it doesn't get fixed, TDD helps give us courage and the confidant ability to refactor and fix code, When developers lose their fear of cleaning, they clean, Documentation, Each unit test defines how the system should be used, Unit test displays:, how to create every object, every way that object can be created, how to call every function in the system, every way that those functions can meaningfully be called, Anything you need to know how to do will be a unit test, Implicit, constantly updating, constantly added documentation, Design, Following the laws forces you to be able to test your code, This forces you to consider and implement good design qualities, If tests are written after the code is written, it's written defensively and will force the implementation to work, Tests written first are written offensively and will design the objects in the best way possible so it's easiest to use, forcing good design

TDD is NOT, Religion, Magic Formula, Does not guarantee the benefits and you can still write bad code with it, You can even write bad tests, Always be practical or appropriate, professionals should never follow a discipline when that discipline does more harm than good


Kata, a precise set of choreographed movements that stimulates one side of a combat, Attempt to practice so much to reach perfection, Practicing over and over how to solve a particular problem, You already know the solution, but practicing the problem solving motions of TDD is the goal, Drive common problem/solution pairs into your subconcious, Examples, The Bowling Game, Integer Square Root, Prime Factors, Word Wrap, AWESOME Post

Wasa, Two-man kata, Ping-pong pair programming pattern, First person writes a failing test, Second person passes it, Second person writes a failing test, First person passes it, When you both really know the kata, Critique each other's keyboarding and mousing techniques., Switch it up and add constraints in the tests, speed & memory, Make it competitive and fun

Randori, free-form combat, Wasa with more than 2 people, People rotate through while the code is projected on the wall, Can go in order, people can skip, move around, etc no specific rules just with more people

Broaden Your Experience, Open Source projects, Practice on your own time, its not your employers responsibility to keep you sharp

Acceptance Testing

Premature Precesion, Business wants to know exactly what they are going to get, programmers want to know exactly what they are supposed to deliver, Both want a precision that simply cannot be achieved, Uncertainty principle, requirements when implemented often aren't really what is desired in the end, observer effect, Estimation anxiety, Late Ambiguity

Automated, Always, why?, Cost, Testing ALWAYS gets cut first, Rerunning manual tests are very expensive, Having a product that the customer doesn't want is very expensive for everyone, Automated acceptance testing is cheap, Can maybe appear more expensive/work but it's the only way to prove it's working and continues to work

Who writes them?, Ideally - stakeholders and QA, realistically - business analysts and QA, analysts test happy paths, QA tests unhappy paths, If developers are forced to write them, Should not be the same developer who implemented it

When to write?, Should be written before the implementation begins, Mid-sprint should have all the acceptance tests written and failing

Negotiate, It is your professional responsibility to negotiate with whom has written the test and make a better test when necessary, NEVER be passive-aggressive, Example:, X has to run in under 2 seconds, Negotiate on average 2 seconds, "not what requirements say", realistically though it's the only way, run test 15 times and average is less than 2 seconds

NOT unit tests, not redundant, test things very differently

Testing Strategies

QA, Should never find any bugs, But probably still will, Should be a part of the team

Test Automation Pyramid (coverage %), 5% Manual Exploratory, NOT automated, nor scripted, NOT written test plan of this kind of testing, Some teams will have a specialist do this, others will declare a day or two of 'bug hunting' to bang on the system, 10% System tests, Ultimate integration tests across the entire system, NOT test business rules, written by system architects and technical leads, 20% integration tests, choreography tests - how well the assembly of components dances together, NOT test business rules, Written by system architects or lead designers of the system, typically not executed as part of CI, Usually apart of nightly/weekly builds, 50% component tests, Acceptance tests of specific components, Written by QA and business with assistance from development, apart of continuous integration suite, 100% unit tests, written by programmers for programmers, as close to 100%, generally in the 90s of true coverage, Image


With Employers, First responsibility is to meet the needs of your employer, understand business goals, collaborate with managers, business analysts, testers and other team members to understand, understand the business and keep it afloat

With Programmers, owned code, Programmers should never own a piece of code, Collective Ownership, Break down all walls of code ownership and have the team own the code, Pairing, Many programmeres dislike the idea, odd because most pair in emergencies, clearly the most efficient way to solve the problem, two heads are better than one, Professionals Pair, Best way to solve problems, Best way to share knowledge with eachother, Professionals don't create knowledge silos, Best way to review code

Cerebellums, Need to be close to team members, need to hear frustrated mutters, serendipitous communication, Need to communicate as a unit, Some may work better alone for just themselves but that doesn't mean the team works better when you work alone, And its unlikely you work better when you work alone, Probably just work more comfortably

Behavioral Professionalism


Do no harm, Don't lookout for yourself, lookout for the project and the customers, We must not create bugs, Impossible?, Human body is more complex and doctors take an oath to do no harm, QA Should Find Nothing!, All code should be covered with automated unit tests, 100% code coverage, Why write code and never test that it works, Professionally proves the system works, Delivering function at the expense of structure is a fool's errand, You must be able to make changes without exorbitant costs, Merciless refactoring, Make every class you touch slightly better, Always be improving, Difficulty to improve is bad design, fix it

Work Ethic, 168 Hours per week, 40 hours to solve your employers problems, 20 hours on your career, 3 hours per day, Lunch hour to read, Podcasts while traveling, 56 hours for sleep, 52 hours for everything else, Minimal list Software Professional should be conversant with, Design patterns, all 24 in the GOF book, Design principles, SOLID principles, Methods, XP, Scrum, Lean, Kanban, Waterfall, Structured Analysis and Structured Design, Disciplines, TDD, Object-Oriented design, Structured Programming, Continuous Integration and Pair Programming, Artificats, UML, DFDs, Structure Charts, Petri Nets, State Transition Diagrams and Tables, flow charts and decision tables, Continuous Learning, Practice, Kata, Mentoring, Know your domain, Read a couple books on the new topic, Spend some time with the experts and try to understand their principles and values, Identify with your employer

Saying No

Professionals speak truth to power, and have the courage to say no to their managers

Being a Team Player, Telling the truth, committing to realistic estimates and not backing down is best for everyone, Don't allow anyone to lie to try to make the team sound better, its not beneficial to anyone, the project, the company or the customer

Trying, Admitting you can try harder implies you have not been trying hard, It applies you and your team to a new commitment that no one really thinks is plausible, This will inevitably lead to failure and put the project in a bad spot, Just say no, Don't accept you need to try to meet a date that is not agreed upon by the team, A professional is already trying, there is no magic pixie dust to make us work better on demand, Say no to trying, Response: I could try to levitate, but I promise you I won't, I could try to change lead in to gold, I could try to swim across the Atlantic, Don't stop by washing your hands and saying no, If your boss is not taking 'no' seriously, make it clear his/her boss needs to be told the truth, or you will tell them, This is for the good of the company, not yourself, not your boss, for everyone, this is your professional responsibility and right

Saying Yes

Language of Commitment, Making a Commitment, Say you'll do it, Mean it, Actually do it, Most communicated commitments are never real commitments, "Yeah, we really need to get some new routers", Ask a team members to run tests -> "Sure. I hope to get to it by the end of the day", But we know we will have to check with him the next day, Management to the team -> "We have to move faster", Which means the team needs to move faster but management will not do anything toward that goal, Recognizing Lack of Commitment, Signs of non commitment, "Need/Should", We need to get this done, I need to lose weight, Someone should make that happen, "Hope/Wish", I hope to get this done by tomorrow, I hope we can meet again some day, I wish I had time for that, I wish this computer was faster, "Let's" (not followed by "I"), Let's meet sometime, Let's finish this thing, How to Commit, "I will... by...", I will finish this by Tuesday, Bad Excuses, It wouldn't work because I rely on person X to get this done, You can still commit to different parts, and you should make those apparent and clear, I can sit with Gary for an hour and understand the dependencies, I can create an interface that abstracts the module's dependency, I can meet three times this week w/ the build guy to make sure your changes work well in the build system, I can create an integration test for the module, It wouldn't work because I don't really know if it can be done, You can still commit to actions. Instead to committing to fixing all 25 remaining bugs for a release:, I can go through all 25 bugs and try to recreate them, I can sit down with the QA who found each bug to see a repro of that bug, I can spend all the time I have this week trying to fix each bug, It wouldn't work because sometimes I just won't make it, Sometimes this is life, but you need to raise a red flag as soon as possible to whoever you committed to, Going to be late for a meeting, as soon as you know, call your colleague and find a solution, maybe postpone or change locations, You can work to change the commitment in the best way possible, A task/bug is more difficult than anticipated, tell the team and come to a conclusion on how to move forward. Maybe fix specific pieces that you have discovered., Don't allow vagueness, Never say or accept you will try to meet a goal, Don't hope for a goal you don't think is a certainty. Promise what you honestly need for a task.., This will force an awkward conversation to make a change. Maybe you reduce features to meet a desired deadline. Maybe the deadline gets moved back., Potentially being responsibly creative to meet a deadline can be okay, just don't be the only one sacrificing, I will work 4 hours on Saturday and work with Willy Monday, but I will take Tuesday off because I know I will be useless without a break.

Time Management

Meetings, Truths, Necessary, Huge Time Wasters, ~$200/hr/attendee, Declining, need to use your time wisely, don't accept meetings unless it is a meeting for which your participation is immediately and significantly necessary to the job your doing now, You are the only one who can manager your time, your current project is highest priority, it is your responsibility to weigh which is more important, Your management should help keep you out of unnecessary meetings, Leaving, When the meeting gets boring, leave, politely exit that meeting, remaining in a meeting that has become a waste of time for you and you can no longer significantly contribute is unprofessional, Have an Agenda and a Goal, When invited, try to get the details of agenda and how much time is alloted for them, if you can't get this information politely decline, When meeting gets side tracked ask the new topic be tabled and the agenda be followed, if this doesn't happen you should politely leave when possible

Arguments/Disagreements, Data is the best way to argue, not relentless arguing, Run experiments or do some simulation or modeling, Sometimes flipping a coin is best, If one path works out great, otherwise you can go down the other path, Pick a time frame in which to decide if path's need to change, Passive aggressive behavior is unprofessional, 'This is how he wants it so this is how he will get it', If an argument must truly be settled, ask each of the arguers to present their case to the team in 5 minutes, have the team vote, whole meeting will take less than 15 min

Focus-Mana, Good nights sleep, Moderate caffeine, Recharging, long walk, conversation w/ friends, meditate, power nap, listen to podcast, Muscle focus, bike riding, carpentry, building models, gardening

Pomodoro Technique, 25 minute timer, politely decline all interruptions to get back to them within 25 min

Avoidance, Priority Inversion, Convincing yourself something else is more important to avoid doing the real work, Unprofessional - Don't do!

Blind Alleys, technical pathways that will lead no where, The Rule of Holes: When you are in one, stop digging


What Is an Estimate?, Business sees them as Commitment, Commitment, must achieve, no matter what it takes, Professionals don't commit unless they KNOW they can achieve the goal, Developers sees them as Guesses, Estimate, A Guess, no commitment is implied, no promise is made, Professional needs to be careful not to make any implied commitments with estimates, Missing an estimate is not dishonorable, An Estimate is a probability distribution, most likely will get done at our estimate forced, can get done sooner if things work out, can take much longer, twice, three times as long if things go poorly

Program Evaluation and Review Technique, PERT, Trivariate analysis, O - Optimistic Estimate, N - Nominal Estimate, P - Pessimistic Estimate, Expected duration, Mue= (O + 4N + P)/6, Standard deviation, (P - O)/6, Example, O - 1, N - 3, P - 12, Expected: 4.2 days, Standard Deviation: 1.8 days, Sequence Calculations, Sequence expected, Summation of each expected, Sequence deviation, sqrt(sum of squares of deviations)

Wideband Delphi, Team of people assemble, discuss a task, estimate the task, and iterate the discussion and estimation until they reach agreement, Flying Fingers, Fingers below table and show on 3, if agreement or close move on, Planning Poker, see scrum planning poker, Affinity Estimation, Cards with the tasks written on them are silently ordered by the team from smaller to larger left to right, Once most cards settle, discuss disagreements, Assign bucket points to the cards, Trivariate Estimates, Get three estimates, pessimistic, nominal and optimistic, Can use any of the three approaches still

Law of large numbers, break up tasks into smaller tasks and estimate them independently


analogy, Don't want your surgeon to stop best practices while under 'dead'lines

Avoid Pressures, Commitments, avoid committing to deadlines we can't meet, help the business meet goals set by others but don't take ownership of the commitment, If we can't find a way to meet the promises made by the business, then the people who made the promises must accept the responsibility, Stay Clean, "quick and dirty" is an oxymoron, Dirty always means slow, Crisis Discipline, How you behave in crisis shows what you truly believe in, If you don't do TDD in crisis then you don't truly believe it's helpful, If you make messes during crunch time, then you don't truly believe messes slow you down, Choose the methods you feel comfortable following in a crisis, then follow them all the time.

Handling Pressure, Don't Panic, Don't stay up all night, sit and frett, or rush, none of these things will help solve the problems, Slow down and think the problem through, Communicate, Let your team and superiors know you are in trouble, Discuss the best plans to get out of trouble, ask for their input, Avoid creating surprises for anyone, Rely on your disciplines, TDD more, Refactor harder, Get Help, Pair Program!

Management / Mentorship

Teams & Projects

Does it Blend?, No such thing as a half of person, Gelled Team, takes time for a team to form, Magical about a gelled team, anticipate each other, cover for each other, support each other, and deman the best from each other, Which came first, Team or the Project?, Team should not be formed around availability to work on a project, Team should be first class decesion

Teams are harder to build than projects


Manuals, Good books, manuals, api's are great mentors that can reach lots of people

Working with someone, learning how they work, their tricks, the best that they know of how to do things

Hard Knocks, learning everything on your own, most developers progress this way, very slow, very hard, not fun

Apprenticeship, Masters, 10+ years of experience, lead of multiple projects, coordinate multiple teams, Maintain technical role by reading, studying, practicing, doing and teaching, Journeymen, Trained, competent and energetic, Learn how to work well in teams and become team leaders, Knowledgeable about current technology but typically lack experience w/ many diverse systems, Teachers, teach apprentices design principles, design patterns, disciplines, and rituals, Apprentices/Interns, Graduates start here, Closely supervised by journeymen, Need intense pair programing, Ought to last a year

Craftsmanship, definition, someone who works quickly, but without rushing, who provides reasonoable estimates and meets commitments, knows when to say no, but tries hard to say yes, a professional, Convincing People, can't convince people to be crafstmen, can't convince them to accept craftmanship, Acceptance is not so much rational as much emotional, human thing, Make craftsmanship observable, act as a role model


What Bob Martin Uses, Source Control, Open Source tools are usually your best option, Enterprise controls usually suck, use open source throughout work, then check into enterprise tool at the end of the iteration, 2008 switched to GIT, IDE, VI, old and vanishing as a coding tool, EMACS, Great general purpose tool, still not premier for editing code, Eclipse/IntelliJ, Bob uses IntelliJ, Issue Tracking, Start small, grow as needed, Bob is using Pivotal Tracker, Continuous Builds, Jenkins, If the build fails, stop the presses and resolve the issue, Unit Testing Tools, JUnit, RSPEC foro Ruby, NUnit for .Net, Midje for Clojure, CppUTest for C(++), Component Testing Tools, FitNesse (written by Bob), Others, RobotFX, Green Pepper, based on confluence?, Cucumber, JBehave, UML/MDA, Not worth it, Assumes the problem is code/design, wrong, problem is in the details, try to UML the details, and you might as well code the thing, No great diagramming language today that solves real problems