Show How Gender may be important in forming our identities

DD100 TMA01 Part B.

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1. Gender chosen by self categorization

2. Masculine+Feminine at same time = androgynous. Neither Masculine or Feminine = undifferentiated

3. Sandra Bem

3.1. (1989) Children look at social and cultural characteristics when constructing gender categories. Less influence by biology because they do not have the knowledge.

4. Turner et al

4.1. Individuals look at social categories and decide if they are in that category

4.2. Choice is through similarities rather than differences

4.2.1. The more different the image, the less likely an individual will identify with it.

4.3. Chapter 2, Pgs 47-48

5. Freud

5.1. Believed female gender was signified by LACK of a penis

5.2. A childs psycho sexual development depends on identifying with other of same sex.

5.3. Chapter 2, pg 49

6. Sex and Gender are not the same

6.1. Sex - A person’s sex is determined by chromosomes and body chemistry.

6.1.1. XX=Female XY = Male, XXY=undetermined

6.1.1.1. Physical sex can be changed. Legal sex cannot.

6.2. A persons gender is more closely associated with how they feel about themselves and how they behave in the eyes of others

6.3. Chapter 2, pg 49

7. Francis (1997,98)

7.1. Observed primary aged children partaking in role play

7.1.1. Noted: Boys taking high staus positions, exerting domination and power more often than girls

7.1.2. Noted: Girls took sensible, selfless, mature behaviours

7.1.3. Girls took on typically feminine roles, boys took masculine.

7.1.4. No single Masculinity or Femininity.Diversity of Masculinities and Femininities ( Ger)

7.2. Not all children took on stereotypical roles, some challenged or ignored them.Roles were Fluid.

7.3. Chapter 2, pg 59 - 60

8. EDUCATION

8.1. Until 60s/70s education was biased towards boys. The 90's showed girls outperforming boys

8.1.1. Charts show overall %'s increasing for boys and girls

8.1.2. Girls consistently outperform boys

8.1.3. Girls beginning to achieve higer results than boys in maths

8.1.4. Girls outperform boys in science

8.1.5. Cognitive testing shows women do better in verbal tests, while men do better in spatial tests.

8.1.5.1. Differences found to be innate (Kimura 92). However, lifestyle factors cannot be excluded.

8.1.5.2. Linda Birke - Test show limited range of skills. Interpretation of tests problematic. Many results show little or no difference. Instead show similarities which go unreported. (Chapter 2, pg 64)

8.1.5.2.1. Birke questions reliance on the idea of fixed differences. Is concerned about the relationships drawn between cognitive test and biological predispositions.

8.1.5.2.2. Differences may be due to an interaction between biology and social cultural experiences.

8.1.5.3. Influence of Social +Cultural Factors (Ger)

8.2. Chapter 2, Pgs 61 - 74

9. Murphy and Edwards

9.1. Claim 1

9.1.1. Boys and girls foster different interests, attitudes and behaviours prior to school, which are perpetuated at school

9.2. Claim2

9.2.1. Feminine and masculine identities are perceived in a way by teachers that can have consequences on achievements

9.3. Claim 3

9.3.1. Boys and girls drawn on different interests and experiences in their school work.

9.4. Chapter 2, pg 69

10. Gender Development Durkin(1995)(GER)

10.1. Childrens Preference for toys from age 3-4 years

10.2. Gender Appropriate

10.3. Early Evidence of Gender Identity

10.4. Chapter 2 page 56

11. Kolhberg,(1966)(GER)

11.1. Children under 5 Particular and distinctive characteristics

11.2. Fooled by context man in a dress