SOCA2999 Research Methodology 1

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SOCA2999 Research Methodology 1 by Mind Map: SOCA2999 Research Methodology 1

1. Dimensions

1.1. Use

1.1.1. Basic

1.1.1.1. definition

1.1.1.1.1. advance fundamental knowledge

1.1.1.2. topic

1.1.1.2.1. freedom

1.1.1.3. judge

1.1.1.3.1. scientific communities

1.1.1.4. criteria

1.1.1.4.1. internal logic

1.1.1.4.2. follow scientific procedures

1.1.1.5. success

1.1.1.5.1. result appear in reputable journal

1.1.1.6. examples

1.1.1.6.1. measurement technique

1.1.1.6.2. scales

1.1.1.6.3. theories

1.1.2. Applied

1.1.2.1. definition

1.1.2.1.1. solve specific policy problem

1.1.2.1.2. help practitioner to accomplish task

1.1.2.2. topic

1.1.2.2.1. constraint by sponsor/client

1.1.2.3. judge

1.1.2.3.1. sponsor

1.1.2.4. criteria

1.1.2.4.1. uses of results

1.1.2.5. success

1.1.2.5.1. how far it can be used

1.1.2.5.2. bring social change

1.1.2.6. types

1.1.2.6.1. action

1.1.2.6.2. social impact assessment

1.1.2.6.3. evaluation

1.2. Purpose

1.2.1. Exploratory

1.2.1.1. explore new topic

1.2.1.2. generate foundation for further research

1.2.1.3. answer 'what?'

1.2.1.4. creative, open minded

1.2.2. Descriptive

1.2.2.1. describe further on social phenomena

1.2.2.2. detail

1.2.2.2.1. relationship

1.2.2.2.2. social setting

1.2.2.3. answer 'how?'

1.2.2.4. most research

1.2.3. Explanatory

1.2.3.1. explain why things occur

1.2.3.2. build upon exploratory & descriptive

1.2.3.3. theory

1.2.3.3.1. test

1.2.3.3.2. extend

1.2.3.3.3. elaborate

1.2.3.4. answer 'why?'

1.2.3.5. challenging

1.3. Time

1.3.1. Cross sectional

1.3.1.1. one point in time

1.3.1.2. simpler, cheaper

1.3.2. Longitudinal

1.3.2.1. definition

1.3.2.1.1. multiple times

1.3.2.1.2. stability and change across time

1.3.2.1.3. more complex

1.3.2.2. types

1.3.2.2.1. time series

1.3.2.2.2. cohort

1.3.2.2.3. panel

1.4. Data collection method

1.4.1. Quantitative

1.4.1.1. Types

1.4.1.1.1. Numerical data

1.4.1.1.2. Look for patterns in numbers

1.4.1.1.3. Test: statistical

1.4.1.2. Researcher's detachment

1.4.1.2.1. detach with sample

1.4.1.2.2. do not know respondents

1.4.1.3. Example

1.4.1.3.1. Survey

1.4.1.3.2. Experiment

1.4.1.3.3. nonreactive research

1.4.2. Qualitative

1.4.2.1. Detail

1.4.2.1.1. Words/ pictures

1.4.2.1.2. Look for pattern in written text

1.4.2.2. Researcher attachment

1.4.2.2.1. esp for anthro.

1.4.2.2.2. build strong attachment

1.4.2.3. Example

1.4.2.3.1. participant observation

1.4.2.3.2. in depth interview

1.4.2.3.3. social artifact

2. Introduction

2.1. definition

2.1.1. process produce knowledge

2.1.2. systematic, valid, reliable

2.1.3. about social world

2.2. relationship between social research and science

2.2.1. science

2.2.1.1. empirical

2.2.1.2. specialized technique

2.2.1.3. theory

2.2.1.4. systematic

2.3. why social research?

2.3.1. foundation for any discipline

2.3.2. better consumer

2.3.3. better producer

2.3.4. quranic motivation

2.3.4.1. people of reasons

2.3.4.1.1. an-Nahl: 12

2.3.4.1.2. al-Jathiyah: 5

2.3.4.2. people who thought

2.3.4.2.1. ar-Ra'd: 3

2.4. other sources of knowledge

2.4.1. personal experience

2.4.1.1. overgeneralization

2.4.1.2. selective observation

2.4.1.3. premature closure

2.4.1.4. halo effect

2.4.1.5. fake consensus

2.4.2. experts & authorities

2.4.2.1. New Topic

2.4.3. popular & media messages

2.4.4. ideological value & belief

3. Measurement

3.1. Concept

3.1.1. definition

3.1.1.1. mental image/perception

3.1.1.2. can be abstract

3.2. How to measure

3.2.1. Conceptualization

3.2.1.1. definition

3.2.1.1.1. imprecise term

3.2.1.1.2. made more specific & precise

3.2.2. Operationalization

3.2.2.1. definition

3.2.2.1.1. how to measure imprecise term

3.2.3. Operational Definition

3.2.3.1. explanation of abstract concept

3.2.3.2. specific enough

3.2.3.3. allow to measure

3.2.4. Variable

3.2.4.1. Definition

3.2.4.1.1. any concept with a measurable traits

3.2.4.2. Quantifiable

3.2.4.2.1. categorical

3.2.4.2.2. continuous

3.2.4.3. Causational

3.2.4.3.1. Independant

3.2.4.3.2. Dependent

3.2.4.3.3. Intervening

3.2.5. Hypothesis

3.2.5.1. definition

3.2.5.1.1. testable statement

3.2.5.1.2. derived from theory

3.2.5.1.3. relationship between two variables

3.2.5.2. causal hypothesis

3.2.5.2.1. definition

3.2.5.2.2. non-directional

3.2.5.2.3. directional

3.3. Level of measurement

3.3.1. definition

3.3.1.1. refers to a degree of precision of measurement

3.3.1.2. degree: refine, exact, precise

3.3.2. purpose

3.3.2.1. identify appropriate statistical test

3.3.2.2. affectshow much we can learn fr our measurement

3.3.2.3. limits types of indicator we can use

3.3.3. level

3.3.3.1. categorical

3.3.3.1.1. nominal

3.3.3.1.2. ordinal

3.3.3.2. continuous

3.3.3.2.1. interval

3.3.3.2.2. ratio

3.4. Scale & index

3.4.1. scale

3.4.1.1. definition

3.4.1.1.1. measurement tool

3.4.1.1.2. researcher to capture intensity,

3.4.1.2. purpose

3.4.1.2.1. to measure abstract concepts

3.4.1.3. example

3.4.1.3.1. likert scale

3.4.1.3.2. guttman scaling

3.4.1.4. purpose

3.4.2. index

3.4.2.1. definition

3.4.2.1.1. composite measure

3.4.2.1.2. adds or combine several distinct item of a concept into a single core

3.5. Reliability & validity

3.5.1. Reliablity

3.5.1.1. Definition

3.5.1.1.1. measure provides consistent result

3.5.1.1.2. measure dependability & consistency

3.5.1.1.3. same thing repeated under identical conditions

3.5.1.2. Types

3.5.1.2.1. stability

3.5.1.2.2. representative

3.5.1.2.3. equivalence

3.5.1.3. improve

3.5.1.3.1. clearly conceptualize all constructs

3.5.1.3.2. increase the level of measurement

3.5.1.3.3. use multiple indicators of a variable

3.5.1.3.4. use pilot studies & replication

3.5.2. Validity

3.5.2.1. Definition

3.5.2.1.1. measure truly reflect the phenomena/concept/issue being studied

3.5.2.1.2. measure truthfulness

3.5.2.1.3. how well an idea fits with actual reality

3.5.2.1.4. more difficult to achieve that realibility

3.5.2.2. Types

3.5.2.2.1. face

3.5.2.2.2. content

3.5.2.2.3. criterion

3.5.2.2.4. construct

3.5.3. Reliability & validity relationship

3.5.3.1. reliability is easier to achieve than validity

3.5.3.2. a measure can be reliable but invalid

3.5.3.3. reliability is necessary for validity

3.5.4. Importance

3.5.4.1. measure ambiguous, not observable constructs

3.5.4.2. to establish truthful & credible findings

4. Research Problem

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. statement of what we hope to investigate

4.2. Factors influence RP

4.2.1. sociological perspective

4.2.2. personal value

4.2.3. funding of research

4.2.4. practical problem

4.2.5. personal experience

4.2.5.1. something happen to us/family

4.2.6. curiosity based on media

4.3. ways to formulate good RP

4.3.1. ask questions

4.3.2. read a lot (LR)

4.3.3. discuss with friends

4.3.4. take your time

4.4. Elements include

4.4.1. why

4.4.2. what

4.4.3. where

4.4.4. how

4.5. Considerations

4.5.1. avoid overdone topics

4.5.1.1. difficult to throw new light

4.5.2. avoid controversials

4.5.2.1. esp for average researcher

4.5.3. familiar & feasible

4.5.3.1. resources within one's reach

4.5.4. know yourself & limitations

5. Sampling

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. select unit/subgroup

5.1.2. from population of interest

5.1.3. can infer result to chosen population

5.2. Why

5.2.1. findings cant generalize to all population

5.2.2. impossible to collect all data

5.2.2.1. time consuming

5.2.2.2. costly

5.2.3. avoid personal bias

5.2.4. systematic

5.2.5. increase credibility of findings

5.3. Procedures

5.3.1. population

5.3.2. sample

5.3.2.1. subgroup from total population

5.3.3. sampling unit

5.3.3.1. single unit of sampling population

5.3.4. sampling frame

5.3.4.1. complete list of sampling unit

5.3.5. sampling ratio

5.3.5.1. ratio of sample size to target population

5.3.6. sampling interval

5.3.6.1. distance between sampling unit to another

5.3.7. unit of analysis

5.3.7.1. empirical case type that researcher wants to observe, measure

5.4. sampling techniques

5.4.1. Probability

5.4.1.1. def

5.4.1.1.1. same probability

5.4.1.2. types

5.4.1.2.1. basic SRS

5.4.1.2.2. systematic

5.4.1.2.3. cluster

5.4.1.2.4. stratified

5.4.1.2.5. multistage

5.4.2. Non-probability

5.4.2.1. def

5.4.2.1.1. different /unknown probability

5.4.2.2. types

5.4.2.2.1. haphazard

5.4.2.2.2. quota

5.4.2.2.3. snowball

5.4.2.2.4. purposive/ judgemental

5.5. Size

5.5.1. how to

5.5.1.1. use statistical formula

5.5.1.2. rule of thumb

5.5.1.2.1. small population

5.5.1.2.2. medium population

5.5.1.2.3. large population

5.5.1.2.4. very large population

5.6. Unit of analysis

5.6.1. definition

5.6.1.1. unit from which we obtain information

5.6.1.2. range from simple to complex

5.6.1.3. unit from which we obtain information

5.6.2. types

5.6.2.1. individuals

5.6.2.2. groups

5.6.2.3. institutions

5.6.2.4. social artifacts

5.6.3. common mistakes

5.6.3.1. ecological fallacy

5.6.3.1.1. generalizing from more complex to simpler unit of analysis

5.6.3.1.2. making conclusion about an individuals based on examination of organization

5.6.3.2. individual fallacy

5.6.3.2.1. generalizing from simpler tp more complex unit of analysis

5.6.3.2.2. making conclusion about an organization based on examination of individuals

6. Data Collection Method

6.1. Quantitative

6.1.1. Survey

6.1.1.1. Designing questionnaire

6.1.1.1.1. definition

6.1.1.1.2. definition

6.1.1.2. types

6.1.1.2.1. face-to-face interview

6.1.1.2.2. telephone

6.2. Quantitative

6.2.1. Survey

6.2.1.1. Designing questionnaire

6.2.1.2. types

7. Data Analysis

7.1. Types

7.1.1. Univariate

7.1.1.1. frequency distribution

7.1.1.1.1. summary of counts of responses for the possible value on the variable

7.1.1.1.2. report

7.1.1.2. measure of central tendency (mct)

7.1.1.2.1. representative of centralor frequent value for distribution

7.1.1.2.2. that describes the characteristic of the whole distribution

7.1.1.2.3. why

7.1.1.2.4. types

7.1.2. Bivariate

7.1.3. Multivariate