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MODAL VERBS by Mind Map: MODAL VERBS
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MODAL VERBS

USE They are used to talk about, for example,possibility,willingness,abilityobligation,certainty and permission. FORM -They are always followed by the infinitive without to,except ought . - They take the same form in all persons. -They don´t use auxiliary verbs to form the interrogative and negative. -We sometimes use expressions such as BE ABLE TO , BE ALLOWED TO or      HAVE TO, instead of modal verbs for certain meanings and forms which are not  possible with modal verbs. - When we talk about the past, we can use modal verb+ have+participle. We use  this structure, for example, to talk about things that possibly happened or things  that did not happen.

ABILITY

CAN

We use CAN to talk about ability. The negative is CANNOT( can´t) Can you swim? He can play the guitar. I can´t open this bottle. We can use be able to instead of can : Are you able to swim?

COULD

We use COULD to say that someone had the general ability to do something in the past. I could swim when I was 4 years old. WAS or WERE ABLE TO is also used with this meaning. I was able to swim when I was 4 years old. But when we want to say that someone had the ability to do something,and that they did it in a particular situation, we must use WAS or WERE ABLE TO ( could is not possible) Even though I´d hurt my leg, I was able to swim back to the boat ( managed to or succeeded in+ ing) There is an exception with the verbs of perception: see, hear,smell,taste,feel and some verbs of thinking eg understand, remember.We use COULD with these verbs when we actually did these things in particular situations. I could hear a noise outside my bedroom door. We use COULD NOT ( COULDN´T) for both general ability and particular situations. My grandmother couln´t dance. He tried very hard,but he couldn´t swim back to the boat.

PERMISSION

ASKING FOR PERMISSION

Can  I borrow your dictionary? Could I borrow your dictionary? (less direct,more polite than can) May   I borrow your dictionary? ( more formal, more "correct") but can and could are more common. Might I use your dictionary? (less direct, more formal style)

CAN

COULD

MAY

MIGHT

GIVING PERMISSION

To give permission, we use  CAN or MAY ( but not could or might) Can I use  your pen for a moment? Yes, of course  you can. Could I make a suggestion? " Of course you may"

CAN

MAY

TALKING ABOUT PERMISSION

When we talk about things that are already permitted or not permitted ( eg when there is a law or a rule), we use can ('t) or be (not) allowed to. You can' t smoke / aren't  allowed  to smoke in this room.  

CAN/CAN' T

COULD/COULDN'T

POSSIBILITY /PROBABILITY/DEDUCTION

MAY

MIGHT

CAN

COULD

CAN'T

MUST

CAN 'T

REQUESTS

ASK FOR SOMETHING

CAN,COULD, MAY

ASK FOR PERMISSION

CAN,COULD,MAY

ASK SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING

OFFERS

WILL

SHALL

CAN

COULD

WOULD

MODAL PERFECTS

COULD HAVE

We use COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE to say that someone had the ability or the opportunity to do something in the past but did not do it.

NEEDN' T HAVE

OBLIGATION AND....

NECESSITY

We use both MUST and HAVE TO to express obligation or necessity, but there is sometimes a difference between them. MUST---- The authority comes from the speaker. You must drive carefully( I insist) HAVE TO..  t

MUST

ADVICE

SHOULD

OUGHT TO

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