Different kinds of obligatiom

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1. Obligations with a Penal Clause (Arts. 1226-1230)

1.1. Penal Clause

1.1.1. Kinds As to its origin Legal Conventional As to its purpose Compensatory Punitive As to its demandability or effect Subsidiary or alternative Joint or cumulative

1.1.2. PENALTY as substitute for damages and interest Creditor may recover for damages when, stipulated by the parties obligor refuses to pay penalty obligor is guilty of fraud Penalty may be enforced when it is demandable

1.1.3. PENALTY not substitute for performance When there is performance no penalty When there is no prformance penalty, or

2. Divisible and Indivisible Obligations(Arts. 1223-1225)

2.1. Principal and Accessory obligations

2.1.1. Principal obligation

2.1.2. Accessory obligation

2.2. Divisible Obligations

2.2.1. Kinds Qualitative division Quantitative division Ideal or Intellectual division

2.2.2. Obligations deemed divisible Obligations which have for their object the execution of certain number of days of work. Obligations which have for their object the accomplishment of work by material units. Obligations which by their nature are susceptible of partial performance.

2.2.3. In obligations NOT TO DO the obligation is fulfilled continuously

2.3. Indivisible Obligations

2.3.1. Kinds Legal indivisibility Conventional indivisibility Natural indivisibility

2.3.2. Obligations provided by law to be indivisible even if thing or service is physically divisible.

2.3.3. Obligations deemed indivisible Obligations to give definite things. Obligations which are not susceptible of partial performance. Obligations intended by the parties to be indivisible even if thing or service is physically divisible.

2.3.4. In obligations NOT TO DO the forbearance is not continuous

3. Joint and Solidary Obligations (Arts. 1207-1222)

3.1. Kinds of obligations acc. to the number of parties

3.1.1. Individual obligation

3.1.2. Collective obligation


3.2.1. "we promise to pay"


3.3.1. "I promise to pay"

3.3.2. Kinds of Solidarity According to the parties bound Passive solidarity Active solidarity Mixed solidarity According to source Conventional solidarity Legal solidarity Real solidarity

3.3.3. Kinds of solidary obligation according to the legal tie: Uniform Non- uniform or varied

4. term is benefit of the debtor alone

5. Pure and Conditional Obligations (Arts. 1179-1192)

5.1. Pure Obligation

5.1.1. no condition

5.1.2. no term

5.1.3. immediately demandable

5.2. Conditional Obligation

5.2.1. Characteristics future and uncertain past but unknown not impossible

5.2.2. Kinds SUSPENSIVE condition before obligation RESOLUTORY obligation before condition POTESTATIVE will of contracting parties CASUAL will of a chance or upon a third person MIXED partly the will of contracting parties and partly of the will of a chance or upon a third person IMPOSSIBLE physically legally POSITIVE the happening of an event EXTINGUISHES obligation NEGATIVE the obligation is EFFECTIVE if no event happened

6. Obligations with a Period (Arts. 1193-1198)


6.1.1. certain event

6.1.2. only to the future

6.1.3. fixes the time for the efficaciousness of the obligation the will of the debtor empowers the court to fix the duration

6.1.4. does not have a retroactive effect

6.1.5. KINDS According to effect Suspensive period Resolutory period According to source Legal period Conventional or voluntary period Judicial period According to definiteness Definite Indefinite

6.1.6. Presumption as to benefit of period Exceptions to the general rule term is for the benefit of the creditor

6.1.7. Term or Period Legal period calendar month

6.1.8. Power to fix a period Judicial Period court Contractual Period contracting parties

6.1.9. Obligation can be demanded before lapse of period when, debtor becomes insolvent debtor does not furnish guaranties or securities promised guaranties or securities given have been impaired or have diasppeared debtor violates an undertaking debtor attempts abscond

7. Alternative (Arts. 1199-1205) and Facultative Obligations (Art. 1206)

7.1. Kinds of obligations acc. to object

7.1.1. Simple obligation

7.1.2. Compound obligation Conjunctive Distributive Alternative Facultative