Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet Mind Map

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Romeo and Juliet by Mind Map: Romeo and Juliet

1. Dynamics

1.1. Family

1.1.1. Feuds The family feud between the Montagues and Capulets cause the two young lovers to go behind their family's backs and engage in an ultimately doomed relationship. This emotionally charged feud adds another aspect of conflict to Romeo and Juliet's lives and makes everything more intense and definitely doesn't help in promoting rational and healthy decision making. "Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona (where we lay our scene), From ancient grudges break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. From forth the fatal loins of these two foes A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life; ...And the continuance of their parent's rage, Which but their children's end nought could remove, Is now the two hours' traffic of our stage; The which if you with patient ears attend, What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend." (act 1, scene 1, lines 1-14) Adult betrayal

1.1.2. Adults and Children Montagues the Montagues are not heavily involved in Romeo's life, while they do show concern for him at the beginning as Montague asks why his son is so downcast and sad. male children had more freedom apart from their family and got educated. This was in contrast to female children Capulets Capulet and Lady Capulet are heavily involved in Juliets life, they are controlling and see her as just another risk to their family's reputation. They insist that she marries Paris because of his status and do not listen to her when she expresses that she does not want to marry him. This is a good representation of a typical parent daughter relationship at the time, they want her to marry into a good family and see it as a duty to the family rather than something that would make Juliet happy. Wife and Husband Friar Lawrence As a father figure While he does caution Romeo about his actions he also does help the two lovers to meet and to ultimately marry each other. He also is the one to make up the plan that, in the end, results in both Juliet and Romeo’s death. He encourages Juliet to act like she was dead and fails to inform Romeo about said plan, as a result both Romeo and Juliet end up committing tragic suicides. Nurse As Juliet’s female role model in her life the nurse is a very influential character. The Nurse goes along with Romeo and Juliet’s secret relationship and helps them to hide it from their parents, in addition she (although maybe not verbally) even encourages them through her actions when she acts as a messenger between the two of them.

1.2. Romantic Relationships

1.2.1. Romeo and Juliet Their relationship is a perfect depiction of "star cross'd lovers." When they meet for the first time at the party it is love at first sight and they quickly become involved in a very emotionally charged secret/forbidden relationship. They are both the main characters of the play and the main love interests. They clearly express their undying love for one another and blatantly express their feelings through imagery, sonnets, metaphors, and similes. “With love’s light wings did I o’reperch these walls, For stony limits cannot hold love out, And what love can do, that dares love attempt: Therefore thy kinsmen are no stop to me.” (act 2, scene 2, lines 66-69)

1.3. Friends

1.3.1. Romeo and Benvolio There is a kind of platonic brotherly love between the characters of Romeo and Benvolio. Benvolio shows genuine concern for Romeo’s wellbeing at the beginning of the play. Even though Benvolio does not affect the plot at all and acts as kind of an outside voice to the plot he still is seen as a good friend of Romeo’s. “Soft, I will go along; And if you leave me so, you do me wrong.” (act 1, scene 1, lines 189-190)

2. Characters

2.1. Main Characters

2.1.1. The Nurse Acts as comic relief Mother figure to Juliet The nurse is a confident to Juliet The function of the Nurse is to keep Romeo and Juliet in contact with each other She encourages the relationship Her outlook on love seems to be very natural and she supports having a loving relationship, although she does have a disagreement with juliet and says that she should marry Paris, she still is very supportive of Romeo and Juliet’s romantic endeavors. “But first let me tell ye, if ye should lead her in a fool’s paradise, as they say, it were a very gross kind of behaviour, as they say; for the gentlewoman is young; and therefore, if you should deal double with her, truly it were an ill thing to be offered to any gentlewoman, and a very weak dealing.” (act 2, scene 4, lines 150-155)

2.1.2. Romeo idealistic, passionate and juvenile in the notion of love at the beginning of the play His former love for Rosaline portrays an obsession with the idea of love, not necessarily the experience of love. Quote: “Love is a smoke made with the fume of sighs. Being purg’d, a fire sparkling in lovers’ eyes. Being vex’d, a sea nourish’d with loving tears. What is it else? A madness most discreet, A choking gall, and a preserving sweet.” (1.1.184-188) Hopeless romantic While he finds Juliet to be breathtakingly beautiful, he finds more love in her faithful vow. Quotes: “By love, that first did prompt me to enquire: he lent me counsel, and I lent him eyes.” (2.2.80-81) and “Th’ exchange of thy love’s faithful vow for mine.” (2.2.127) -Melancholy -Brooding -Quick to protect the ones he loves -Impulsive Becomes more aware of what love really means Romeo’s interest in love develops from that of superficial love where he finds inspiration for love from the poetry he reads, in other words a lack of individuality on what he feels. Quote: “You kiss by th’ book” (1.5.109) Love in a sense becomes a poison (figurative and literally) for Romeo as the play continues to progress. The balcony scene shows his lack of restraint to stay away from Juliet that he finds himself unable to physically leave the Capulet grounds. Quote: “Can I go forward when my heart is here?” (2.1.1) The balcony scene shows the transition of Romeo’s maturity. He lacks moderation (hamartia) over his feelings, but that does not take away from the reality of his new founded love. Moreover, he professes his love and commits himself to the bond of marriage. Even though it is only ‘love at first sight’, the audience must move pass their own judgments to acknowledge the plot and allow the characters to develop. Makes rash decisions that lead to his death Lack of self-control over emotions and the motivation to defend Mercutio’s honour results in exile; a questionable punishment of death since he dies with the knowledge of Juliet wanting to commit suicide

2.1.3. Juliet -The practical one in the relationship -Reasonable Conflicted about Romeo The rising action of the Balcony Scene demonstrates an internal conflict between wanting to love Romeo and wanting to love her enemy. Juliet’s soliloquies question the meaning of words, specifically Montague to which she claims that she does not define Romeo by his family. Quote: “That which we call a rose by any other word would smell as sweet” (2.2.43-44) Wants to take control of her life Not only is she willing to sacrifice the name of Capulet, but she remains aware of the circumstances both religious and social in wanting to advance the relationship. Juliet’s archetype is beyond the submissive love interest and instead represents a heroine who is not afraid to follow Romeo as his equal. A meaningful life even if it is a short life is created by her own choices, then simply following the plans of her parents. Ultimately, Shakespeare sets up Juliet’s character to rebel against the social institutions she has been oppressed by. End of the play From the choices of her parents, Juliet becomes confined by the social expectations of marriage to Count Paris. Immediately and to the pathos of the audience, Juliet’s emotions become her driving force. By the end of the play, she abandons her practicality. Friar Lawrence (who is basically manipulated by her) tells her of a solution that she wants to hear, and is too stubborn to think about, instead deciding to go through with it. Quote: “Be not so long to speak, I long to die, if what thou speak’st speak not of remedy.” (4.1.66-67). ///The punishment of partly her own actions would leave her with death.

2.1.4. Friar Lawrence -Acts as a father figure to Romeo -Encourages the relationship -He made the plan that ended with both lovers dead

2.2. Foil Characters

2.2.1. Mercutio Crude, flamboyant, witty and full of life The death of Mercutio Shift from tragedy to comedy "A plague o' both your houses!” Queen Mab Speech Reveals Mercutio’s thoughts about the feud between the two families. References to illness suggests that the feud is damaging Verona Sympathy (or lack there of) Mercutio does exhibit much humanity, he is somewhat of a caricature of the opposite side of Romeo His death is tragic, and he is just a victim of the violence in Verona, somewhat of a innocent bystander

2.2.2. Tybalt Violent, vengeful and reactionary, possess a very macho personality Functions as a plot device to incite violence and further the plot He embodies hate, and functions as the antithesis to the greater theme of love His death is the cause of the crisis of the play (Romeo's banishment)

2.2.3. Benvolio He is level headed, which contrasts to Romeo’s rather impulsive tendencies

2.3. Minor Characters

2.3.1. Balthazar Functions as a messenger, gives Romeo the news of Juliet's apparent death

2.3.2. Benvolio Benvolio often provides context to the story, and echos the audience’s thoughts. He tries He is somewhat removed from the plot of the story Attempts to stop violence but has no real influence on the story

2.3.3. Lady Montague Romeo's mother, dies at the end

2.3.4. Lord Montague Romeo's father

2.3.5. Lady Capulet Juliet's mother not connected to Juliet at all

2.3.6. Lord Capult Juliet's domineering father, wants her to marry Paris

2.3.7. Father John Supposed to tell Romeo that Juliet was faking her death but gets held up

3. Rhetorical Devices

3.1. Contrast and juxtaposition

3.1.1. The contrast in Romeo and Juliet is the plot. Where two "star cross'd" lovers fall deeply in love but are forbidden to be together do to their families feuding.

3.1.2. Light and Dark Imagery Romeo: "O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope’s ear;” (act 1, scene 5, lines 43-44) Romeo compares Juliet to be brighter than a torch (light) and like a jewel in an Africans ear (dark)

3.2. Images of light, flowers, hands

3.2.1. hands Romeo compares Juliet's hand to a "holy shrine" and worships it. Romeo: "If I profane with my unworthiest hand This holy shrine," (act 1, scene 5, lines 92-93) Juliet explains to Romeo he is worthy enough to kiss her hand. Juliet: "For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmer's kiss." (act 1, scene 5, lines 98-99)

3.2.2. flowers flower imagery is used to emphasize the beginning of Romeo and Juliet's love. Juliet compares Romeo to a rose, wanting him to have a different name. Although Romeo does not define himself as a Montague. The Nurse and Lady Capulet compare Paris to a flower, in an attempt to convince Juliet that he is a good husband, and is worthy enough for Juliet's love. Juliet compares hers and Romeo's love to a flower, in an attempt to tell him they need to slow down. Much like a flower, their love is just a small bud right now, but will blossom into a beautiful flower eventually.

3.2.3. light The relationship between Romeo and Juliet is more complex since than the classic good (light) and evil (dark) they both refer to each other as different forms of light, yet they depend on the darkness for privacy. For their love to shine it needs the balance of darkness. The Balcony Scene occurs at night, suggesting that Romeo and Juliet’s love thrives in a setting distinct from the feuds of their families. Romeo who remains in the shadows compares Juliet to a bright angel to the point of signifying her purity beyond the natural earth. Quote: “O speak again, bright angel, for thou art as glorious to this night...” (2.2.26-27) Juliet refers to their love as quick and sudden, similar to lightening. Irony is depicted through fear of their fast-paced choices. Quote: “Too like the lightening, which doth cease to be ere one can say, ‘it lightens’.” (2.2.119-120) The motif of light suggests the freedom of Romeo and Juliet’s love from the social rules which divide them both. However, their meetings at night and the secrecy of their actions suggest a fatal consequence.

3.3. Humour (slapstick, puns, dirty jokes)

3.3.1. Dirty Jokes Romeo: “O, she is rich in beauty, only poor/ That when she dies, with beauty dies her store." Benvolio: “Then she hath sworn that she will live chaste?” Romeo: “She hath, and in that sparing makes huge waste,/ For beauty starv’d with her severity/ Cuts beauty off from all posterity.” (act 1, scene 1, lines 209-214) Romeo suggests that living chaste is a “waste”, especially for a women of beauty.

3.3.2. Hyperbole Romeo is prone to grand gestures. This is seen through the use of expressing his love to Juliet constantly and is done through the use of poems or romantic letters. Romeo: "He jests at scars that never felt a wound. But soft, what light through yonder window breaks?... O blessed, blessed night! I am afeard, Being in night, all this is but a dream, Too flattering- sweet to be substantial." (act 2, scene, 2, lines 1-141)

3.4. Oxymoron's

3.4.1. In Juliet's response to hearing that Romeo has killed Tybalt she contradicts the description of an angel and a devil. Which, as a biblical allusion is opposite. Fiend refers to an evil spirt or devil, while angelical is the comeparison of one to an angel. Juliet: "Beautiful tyrant, fiend angelical!" (act 3, scene 2, line 75)

4. Historical Context

4.1. Literary References

4.1.1. Orpheus and Eurydice Similar to RJ because their love for each other was their downfall. Also they both die together Eurydice is bit by a snake and dies. He convinces Hades and Persephone to let Eurydice go, but her release comes with a catch: Eurydice must walk behind him as they ascend to the upper world, and Orpheus is forbidden from looking at her. He fails and they are separated forever. Greek mythological story

4.1.2. Pyramus and Thisbe Their families hate each other. They decide to get married, and agree to meet under a tree. However, when Thisbe arrives under the tree, there is a lion. She runs away but leaves her shawl. Pyramus arrives, sees the shawl and the lioness and believes that Thisbe is dead, so he kills himself. Thisbe comes back and sees him dead on the ground so she kills herself. Similar to RJ because they both die in the end, and they died because they thought the other was dead Babylonian story told by a Roman poet

4.1.3. Tristan and Isolde the lovers run away into the forest. They make peace with Mark and Tristan agrees to give her back to Mark. He marries a different Isolde, then gets wounded by a poison weapon. He sends for the original Isolde, and tells her to fly white sails if she agrees to heal him and if not, fly black. His envious wife tells him the sails were black when she discovers the plot. He dies, Isolde was too late to save him and she dies in a final with him. Two trees grow out of their graves and entwine. Similar to RJ because they are separated because of family. They die together after being apart. Celtic folk story

4.2. Feuds

4.2.1. Clan Chattan and Clan Kay Two Scottish clans that feuded in the 14th century. The king tried to get them to end their feud peacefully, but failed. This is similar to the Montagues and Capulets because they were fighting, but were ruled over by someone higher than them (the Prince)

4.2.2. The Borgias and the Medicis The Borgias made enemies of many people in Renaissance Italy, including the Medicis, one of the big banking families in Italy. The Medicis couldn’t live in Rome for a while because of Cesare, and so didn’t like him. This is similar to the Montagues and Capulets because Romeo ended up being banished from Verona and was unable to live there, similar to the Medicis in Rome.

4.3. Historical Characters

4.3.1. Mark Antony and Cleopatra They lived together for a bit, but he got convicted of a crime by the Romans. Octavian attacked Cleopatra and Egypt, and they were separated. Believing that Cleopatra was dead, Antony stabbed himself. Cleopatra found out and, after several botched attempts, killed herself Similar because two people died for their love for each other. They also both thought that the other was dead and killed themselves because of it.

4.3.2. Abelard and Heloise They had and affair and Heloise became pregnant. Abelard sent her to his family in Brittany, where she gave birth to their son Astrolobe. They married and kept their marriage secret, but her uncle revealed. He sent her to the convent where she grew up, and she lived the life a nun. Abelard was castrated and ended up becoming a monk, and urged Heloise to take her vows to become a nun. Similar as they had to go to extreme measures to be together, and eventually had to separate to avoid retaliation by their families (especially Heloise’s uncle)

5. Plot Devices

5.1. Plot Elements

5.1.1. Exposition The play starts off in Verona where the two families, the Capulets and the Montagues, are feuding with each other over a seemingly long forgotten conflict. When the play starts Romeo is infatuated with Rosaline and is sad because she does not return the feelings. Montague is concerned for the wellbeing of his only son. "Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona (where we lay our scene), From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. From forth the fatal loins of these two foes A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life" (act 1, scene 1, lines 1-6) "Many a morning hath he there been seen, With tears augmenting the fresh morning's dew, Adding to clouds more clouds with his deep sighs" (act 1, scene 1, lines 125-127)

5.1.2. Inciting Factor Romeo and Juliet meet at a party thrown by the Capulets. It is "love at first sight" and later that night they meet again and exchange vows of loyalty. This causes conflict for Romeo and Juliet are from feuding families and would never be able to spend their lives together with their parents approval. "If I profane with my unworthiest hand This holy shrine, the gentle sin is this, My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss." (act 1, scene 5, lines 92-95)

5.1.3. Rising Action Romeo and Juliet secretly marry because they fear for their family's reactions if they were to find out. "Three words, dear Romeo, and good night indeed. If that thy bent of love be honourable, thy purpose marriage, send me word tomorrow, By one that I'll procure to come to thee" (act 2, scene 2, lines 142-145) "Come, come with me, and we will make short work, For by your leaves, you shall not stay alone Till Holy Church incorporate two in one" (act 2, scene 6, lines 35-37)

5.1.4. Climax Tybalt kills Mercutio and Romeo kills Tybalt. Romeo gets banished from Verona and goes to stay in Mantua. "Romeo, away, be gone! The citizens are up, and Tybalt slain. Stand not amaz'd, the prince will doom thee death If thou art taken. Hence be gone, away! "And for that offence Immediately we do exile him hence. I have no interest in your hearts' proceeding" (act 3, scene 1, lines 181-182)

5.1.5. Falling Action Juliet is told by her father that she will marry Paris. The Capulets and Montagues don't know about Romeo and Juliet's union, the Friar makes a plan for the couple to be together and Juliet fakes her death by drinking a special potion given to her by the Friar. "Thank me no thankings, nor proud me no prouds, But fettle your fine joints 'gainst Thursday next, To go with Paris to saint Peter's Church, Or I will drag thee on a hurdle thither." (act 3, scene 5, lines 152-155) "Farewell! God knows when we shall meet again. I have a faint cold fear thrills through my veins That almost freezes up the heat of life: I'll call them back again to comfort me. Nurse!--What should she do here? My dismal scene i needs must act alone. Come, vial. What if this mixture do not work at all? Shall I be married then tomorrow morning? No, no, this shall forbid it; lie thou there." (act 4, scene 3, lines 14-23)

5.1.6. Suspense Romeo doesn't get the letters about the plan and is informed that Juliet has supposedly died. Romeo goes back to Verona, buys a poison, and goes to where Juliet; is ready to drink the poison. "Come, bitter conduct, come, unsavoury guide! Thou desperate pilot, now at once run on The dashing rocks thy seasick weary bark! Here's to my love! [Drinks] O true apothecary! Thy drugs are quick, Thus with a kiss I die. [Dies]" (act 5, scene 3, lines 116-120)

5.1.7. Resolution Romeo drinks the Poison and Juliet awakes to find him there. She then proceeds to kill herself with Romeo's dagger. the Montagues and Capulets decide to put away their differences after this tragedy. "Yea, noise? Then I'll be breif. O happy dagger, Taking Romeo's dagger This is thy sheath; Stabs herself there rust, and let me die." (act 5, scene 3, lines 169-170) "O brother Montague, give me thy hand. This is my daughter's jointure, for no more Can I demand" (act 5, scene 3, lines 296-298)

5.1.8. Foreshadowing Second Prologue (act 1, scene 5, lines 144-157) The downfall of their relationship and the hardships they’ll go through. Foreshadows their death. Enforces what the audience may already have inferred from the Kissing Sonnet. The Kissing Sonnet (act 1, scene 5, lines 93-107) The beginning of their love leading to their inevitable death (fatalistic) Love at first sight archetype “star cross’d lovers”, as well as a forbidden/doomed love

6. Themes

6.1. Family

6.1.1. Duelling and defending one's kin "Uncle, this is a Montague, our foe" (1.5.60) Romeo and Tybalt's battle signifies the first step towards moving past the conflict. Yet, Romeo's intentions would prove meaningless and almost at the hand of fate. Since in order to rectify the past it would require death. "I do protest I never injured thee, But love thee better than thou canst devise." (3.1.65-66) The feud between the Montague's and Capulet's symbolizes everything wrong with Romeo and Juliet's relationship. In a sense it is betrayal of the love offered by one's kin. Nevertheless, their marriage surpasses that feud. With Romeo and Juliet's families now connected it opens the path to healing from the past.

6.1.2. The Friar and the Nurse act as parent figures to Romeo and Juliet.

6.2. Punishment

6.2.1. Every single character in the play either indirectly or directly had a part in the tragedy. The tragedies of Romeo and Juliet ultimately fall to the fate of their own decisions. While every character in some way both direct and indirect contributes to the fate of the lovers, it is ultimately the crashing realities of an idealistic love that is at fault. Do the ends justify the means? Yes, in Romeo and Juliet's meeting while considered doom in life were willing to meet those tragic ends if it meant they could be together. The audience is forced to abandon their beliefs of reality and practical conventions to accept what is defined as a romantic tragedy. Not only do Romeo and Juliet tackle every obstacle the idealistic love is the central component that relates to the other relationships in the play. “O happy dagger! This is thy sheath, there rust and let me die!” (5.3.169-171) “Thus with a kiss, I die” (5.3.120) It is the Friar who set forth the chain of events by actually marrying Romeo and Juliet “If, rather than to marry County Paris, thou hast the strength of will to slay thyself, then it is likely thou wilt undertake a thing like death to chide away this shame, that cop’st with Death himself to scrape from it; And if thou dar’st, I’ll give thee remedy.”) (4.1.71-76) Loyalty and idealistic love drive both the fate of Romeo and Juliet. “Be not so long to speak, I long to die, if what thou speak’st speak not of remedy.” (4.1.66-67) Capulet is shamed by his failure to put aside his own beliefs as what caused the death of his daughter. A Parental love is overshadowed by the facade of greed in terms of status. “Sir Paris, I will make a desperate tender of my child’s love: I think she will be rul’d in all respects by me; nay more, I doubt it not.” (3.4.12-14) Tybalt’s blame stemmed from the family feud and wanting to defend his kin; punished by death. Mercutio and the inability to stay out of the conflict and his death plagues Romeo’s conscious; punished by death. The lack and distance of parental love for protagonists is only realized by their parents after they had died. Along with the realization that the feud served no purpose beyond the mess it created, the parents were reminded that while children are meant to respect their parents, the parents have a duty to not take their children for granted.

6.3. Revenge

6.4. Love

6.5. Friendship

6.5.1. Tybalt and the Nurse “O Tybalt, Tybalt, the best friend I had!”

6.5.2. Romeo, Benvolio and Mercutio Mercutio and Benvolio are both dedicated to their friendship with Romeo and provide balance through contrasting personalities. Mercutio is confident and funny. Benvolio is calm, collected and rational. Mercutio is Romeo’s best friend who believes in love through realistic, particularly physical experiences. He continuously mocks Romeo for his hopeless romanticism but remains immensely loyal to him. Romeo who feels as if he has betrayed his friendship avenges his death by killing Tybalt. The friendship between these two symbolizes the obsession of idealistic love to the point of its consequences for other characters in the play.

6.5.3. Despite knowing each other for only a short amount of time, Romeo and Juliet describe a relationship that is mostly love. However, there loyalty and unyielding trust in each other proves to be a form of friendship.