Prokaryotes

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Prokaryotes by Mind Map: Prokaryotes

1. Bacteria

1.1. Bacterial Shapes

1.1.1. Coccus

1.1.1.1. Spherical shape

1.1.2. Bacillus

1.1.2.1. Rod shape

1.1.3. Spirillium

1.1.3.1. Spiral shape

1.2. Proteobacteria

1.2.1. Alpha

1.2.1.1. Caulobacter

1.2.2. Beta

1.2.2.1. Opportunistic pathogens

1.2.3. Gamma

1.2.3.1. Azotobacter

1.2.4. Delta

1.2.4.1. Myxococcus

1.2.5. Epsilon

1.2.5.1. Camphylobacterales

1.3. Chlamydias

1.3.1. Chlamydia trachomatis

1.4. Spirochetes

1.4.1. Spirochaeta

1.5. Cyanobacteria

1.5.1. Synechocystis

1.6. Gram positive bacteria

1.6.1. Streptococcus

2. Jared Miller

3. Archaea

3.1. Euyarchaeota

3.1.1. Thaumarchaeota

3.1.1.1. Nitrosopumilus maritimus

3.1.2. Aigarchaeota

3.1.2.1. Sister lineage to Thaumarchaeota

3.1.3. Crenarchaeota

3.1.3.1. Acidilobus Saccarovorans

3.1.4. Korarchaeota

3.1.4.1. Halobacterium

4. Reproduction

4.1. Asexual

4.1.1. Binary fission

4.1.1.1. When a cell splits into two and both grow into full size cells

4.2. Sexual

4.2.1. Transformation

4.2.1.1. Gathering DNA from the surrounding environment and converting it into usable genetic material

4.2.2. Horizontal gene transfer

4.2.2.1. Transmission of DNA from one organism to another via any means other than reproduction

4.2.3. Conjugation

4.2.3.1. DNA transfer from one cell to another via the Sex Pilus

4.2.4. Transduction

4.2.4.1. DNA gained from infection via a virus

5. Nutritional Categories

5.1. Energy and carbon source

5.1.1. Photoautotrouph

5.1.1.1. Gains energy from light

5.1.2. Chemoautotrouph

5.1.2.1. Gains energy from chemicals

5.1.3. Chemoheterotrouph

5.1.3.1. Gains energy from organic compounds

5.1.4. Photoheterotrouph

5.1.4.1. Gains energy from organic compounds

5.2. Metabolism

5.2.1. Obligate aerobes

5.2.1.1. Must have O2 to survive

5.2.2. Obligate anaerobes

5.2.2.1. Cannot have O2 to survive

5.2.3. Facultative anaerobes

5.2.3.1. Can go with or without O2 to survive

5.2.4. Nitrogen fixers

5.2.4.1. Breaks down Nitrogen in atmosphere into NH3

5.2.5. Methanogens

5.2.5.1. Breaks down carbon dioxide into methane

5.2.6. Decomposers

5.2.6.1. Breaks down organic material

6. Lifestyles

6.1. Extremophiles

6.1.1. Halophiles

6.1.1.1. Tolerates extremly saline environments

6.1.2. Acidophiles

6.1.2.1. Tolerates extremely acidic environments

6.1.3. Alkalinophiles

6.1.3.1. Tolerates extremely basic environments

6.1.4. Psychrophiles

6.1.4.1. Tolerates extremely cold environments

7. Ecological Interactions

7.1. Biofilm

7.1.1. Many bacteria existing in a single colony

7.2. Symbiosis

7.2.1. A beneficial relationship between two organisms

7.3. Mutualism

7.3.1. Symbiosis that is mutually beneficial

7.4. Commensalism

7.4.1. A relationship where one organism benefits and the either gains no benefit or harm

7.5. Parasitism

7.5.1. A relationship where one organism benefits and the other gains harm

8. Uses of Prokaryotes

8.1. Cloning

8.1.1. Plasmids have been used by scientists to manipulate and control genes for use in cloning

8.2. Transgenic plants

8.2.1. Manipulating the genes in plants using bacteria allows for genetic structure to be changed to allow for plants to be tailor-made for certain uses

8.3. Make plastics

8.3.1. Used in the creation of biodegradable plastics

8.4. Bioremediation

8.4.1. Using bacteria to clean up pollutants

8.5. Bioengineering

8.5.1. Used to produce materials that give valuable information for scientists working in bioengineering