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Prokaryotes by Mind Map: Prokaryotes

1. Bacteria

1.1. Bacterial Shapes

1.1.1. Coccus Spherical shape

1.1.2. Bacillus Rod shape

1.1.3. Spirillium Spiral shape

1.2. Proteobacteria

1.2.1. Alpha Caulobacter

1.2.2. Beta Opportunistic pathogens

1.2.3. Gamma Azotobacter

1.2.4. Delta Myxococcus

1.2.5. Epsilon Camphylobacterales

1.3. Chlamydias

1.3.1. Chlamydia trachomatis

1.4. Spirochetes

1.4.1. Spirochaeta

1.5. Cyanobacteria

1.5.1. Synechocystis

1.6. Gram positive bacteria

1.6.1. Streptococcus

2. Jared Miller

3. Archaea

3.1. Euyarchaeota

3.1.1. Thaumarchaeota Nitrosopumilus maritimus

3.1.2. Aigarchaeota Sister lineage to Thaumarchaeota

3.1.3. Crenarchaeota Acidilobus Saccarovorans

3.1.4. Korarchaeota Halobacterium

4. Reproduction

4.1. Asexual

4.1.1. Binary fission When a cell splits into two and both grow into full size cells

4.2. Sexual

4.2.1. Transformation Gathering DNA from the surrounding environment and converting it into usable genetic material

4.2.2. Horizontal gene transfer Transmission of DNA from one organism to another via any means other than reproduction

4.2.3. Conjugation DNA transfer from one cell to another via the Sex Pilus

4.2.4. Transduction DNA gained from infection via a virus

5. Nutritional Categories

5.1. Energy and carbon source

5.1.1. Photoautotrouph Gains energy from light

5.1.2. Chemoautotrouph Gains energy from chemicals

5.1.3. Chemoheterotrouph Gains energy from organic compounds

5.1.4. Photoheterotrouph Gains energy from organic compounds

5.2. Metabolism

5.2.1. Obligate aerobes Must have O2 to survive

5.2.2. Obligate anaerobes Cannot have O2 to survive

5.2.3. Facultative anaerobes Can go with or without O2 to survive

5.2.4. Nitrogen fixers Breaks down Nitrogen in atmosphere into NH3

5.2.5. Methanogens Breaks down carbon dioxide into methane

5.2.6. Decomposers Breaks down organic material

6. Lifestyles

6.1. Extremophiles

6.1.1. Halophiles Tolerates extremly saline environments

6.1.2. Acidophiles Tolerates extremely acidic environments

6.1.3. Alkalinophiles Tolerates extremely basic environments

6.1.4. Psychrophiles Tolerates extremely cold environments

7. Ecological Interactions

7.1. Biofilm

7.1.1. Many bacteria existing in a single colony

7.2. Symbiosis

7.2.1. A beneficial relationship between two organisms

7.3. Mutualism

7.3.1. Symbiosis that is mutually beneficial

7.4. Commensalism

7.4.1. A relationship where one organism benefits and the either gains no benefit or harm

7.5. Parasitism

7.5.1. A relationship where one organism benefits and the other gains harm

8. Uses of Prokaryotes

8.1. Cloning

8.1.1. Plasmids have been used by scientists to manipulate and control genes for use in cloning

8.2. Transgenic plants

8.2.1. Manipulating the genes in plants using bacteria allows for genetic structure to be changed to allow for plants to be tailor-made for certain uses

8.3. Make plastics

8.3.1. Used in the creation of biodegradable plastics

8.4. Bioremediation

8.4.1. Using bacteria to clean up pollutants

8.5. Bioengineering

8.5.1. Used to produce materials that give valuable information for scientists working in bioengineering