Chapter 18

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Chapter 18 by Mind Map: Chapter 18

1. Renaissance

1.1. Vocab

1.1.1. Martin Luther German monk whose protests against the Catholic Church in 1517 (Ninety-Five Theses) led to calls for reform and to the Reformation

1.1.2. Indulgences Pardons issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church that could reduce a soul's time in purgatory

1.1.3. Humanism Movement in the Renaissance that focues on the study of worldly subjects, poetry, and philosophy

1.1.4. Shakespeare English dramatist and poet; he is considered one of the greatests dramatists of all time and wrote works such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and A Midsummer Night's Dream

1.1.5. Michelangelo Buonarroti Famous artist in the Renaissance era; painted the Sistine Chapel and created the Statue of David

1.1.6. Predestination Belief that at the beginning of time God decided who would gain salvation

1.1.7. Ignatius of Loyola a spanish church man; founder of the Jesuits

1.1.8. Ninety-Five Theses created by Martin Luther; certain financial and religious practices he wanted to debate

1.1.9. Jesuits Members of a Catholic religious order; the society of Jesus founded by Igantius of Loyola

1.1.10. Leonardo da Vinci Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist; his interests and talents spanned numerous disciplines; most notably the Mona Lisa

1.1.11. John Calvin French Protestant theologian of the Reformation; he founded Calvinism, which was associated with the doctrine of prede

1.2. Summary

1.2.1. The Renaissance was a large cultural movement that began in Italy and spread north to the rest of Europe. Italians began to focus more on humanism and less on religion, creating tactics that used logic rather than pure brute. As the Renaissance declined, in Italy, it inclined in Northern Europe. Monarchs and rulers were willing to comply with others to gain supplies and literature because more earthy and bodily focused. Trading contacts in the West encouraged Europeans to develop systems like pulleys and levers to make their work more efficient, and the move Ake rule encouraged mass production of books and more readers. A German monk named Martin Luther interpreted religion as being free for everyone, and he believed that Catholicism was not the right way to follow religion. He gained many followers and began the Anglican Church. The Protestant reformation lead to tensity within nations and many civil wars between followers of different religions. This lead to religious change because the Catholics began to see Protestant beliefs and the culture changed.

2. European Commercial Revolution

2.1. Vocab

2.1.1. Five Great Farms A free trade zone within France without any tariffs

2.1.2. Gentry Well-bred people of high social class

2.1.3. Caravel A small Portuguese or Spanish sailing ship

2.1.4. Capitalism A private property and free enterprise based economic system

2.1.5. Mercantilism Belief in commercialism

2.1.6. Guilds A group of people working in the same craft or with common interests

2.1.7. Scottish Rebellion England tried to impose the Anglican book of prayer

2.1.8. Personal Rule of Charles Charles’s rule of parliament after he forced parliament to dissolve

2.1.9. Duke of Buckingham Charles’s chief minister

2.1.10. Arminian Dutch Protestant who founded Arminianism which opposed John Calvin’s absolute predestination

2.2. Summary

2.2.1. The amount of imported gold and silver to Spain forced prizes to rise. This lead to the formation of monopolies and capitalism in order to keep trade contact throughout Europe and Asia as it was decreasing. Rising prices and inflation caused the poor to have to sell their land and become manufacturing workers. This lead to protests for a need for protection against poverty. Communities that were unwilling to accept responsibility for the poor accused them of witchcraft and revealed tensions with family and women. The change within Europe was very sudden and the people had incredible reactions to the change, however, this was here to stay and the change set the stage for further developments within Europe.

3. Scientific Revolution

3.1. Vocab

3.1.1. Anders Celsius Swedish astronomer who developed the Celsius scale

3.1.2. Marie Curie French chemist who won two Nobel peace prizes

3.1.3. Scientific Method A method of scientific procedure

3.1.4. Heliocentric View The view of representing the sun as the center of the solar system

3.1.5. Gravity The law that states that every object is attracted by another object

3.1.6. Circulatory System The system that allows blood to flow throughout your body

3.1.7. Edward Jenner Introduced the smallpox vaccine

3.1.8. Ptolemy Greek astronomer who said the sun orbited the Earth

3.1.9. Brahe Danish scientist who charted the position of over 750 stars

3.1.10. Inquisition What Galileo was put on trial for because of his ideas

3.1.11. Aristotelian Model of the universe developed by a Greek scientist; earth at the center

3.2. Summary

3.2.1. At one point, the Revolution turned towards science. Copernicus’s discovery of how the planets moved around the sun created interest in science and new discoveries were made. Copernicus’s discovery of the heliocentric view created a striking interest in science and the renaissance became a time where it was studied greatly among the educated. This lead to the creation of the scientific method and the discoveries of the circulatory system and gravity. Government-aided institutes were set up to advance research and writers used science in their works.

4. Political Reformation

4.1. Vocab

4.1.1. German Liberties The German freedom of choosing your own religion

4.1.2. Bohemian Phase Religious civil war

4.1.3. Thirty Years War The last religious war and the first modern balance of power

4.1.4. Edict of Restitution The turning point of the Danish phase

4.1.5. Albrecht von Wallenstein Ferdinand’s commander

4.1.6. Peace of Pyrenees A treaty that established the border between France and Spain

4.1.7. The Act of Supremacy An act passed by parliament that declared the English king as the head of the Church of England

4.1.8. Anabaptism The belief in only adult baptism because you were more aware

4.1.9. Elizabeth I English political figure who placed political necessities above personal beliefs

4.2. Summary

4.2.1. After the civil wars, the monarchs used the time of need to take power over the people. They modeled their government after the French and they used this to their advantage and set laws without having them reviewed first, and created absolute monarchies were monarchs had complete control. Britain and the Netherlands followed the Monarchy too, however, they created a parliament which eventually became more powerful than the monarchs themselves. The Monarchies were very similar, and because they were usually small, they were able to appeal to the people as a whole. This became a problem whenever people expected more of the government than what they could provide.

5. 1750

5.1. Vocab

5.1.1. Enlightenment A large cultural movement driven by scientific discoveries

5.1.2. Baron de Montesquieu Wrote “Spirit of Laws” and inspired the US Constitution; created the idea that the power of government should be divided into branches in order to limit the abuse of powers

5.1.3. John Locke Believes people are born “Tabula rasa” and we are born with natural rights

5.1.4. John Locke’s 3 natural rights Life, Liberty, Property

5.1.5. Natural law People have the right to life, liberty, and property that the government must protect the common good

5.1.6. Separation of powers Separate the parts of government so that no branch can become too powerful

5.1.7. Thomas Hobbes Believes people are naturally cruel, greedy, and must be controlled by a strict government

5.1.8. Voltaire Beliefs in religious toleration

5.1.9. Rousseau Believes in a direct democracy

5.1.10. Adam Smith Wrote “A Wealth of Nations” and believes supply and demand should regulate business

5.1.11. Mercantilism Benefits of profitable trading, and that trade generates wealth; countries want to buy more than sell

5.1.12. Cesare Beccaria People who commit crimes have rights; belief in a fair and speedy trial by a jury of their peers

5.1.13. State of nature Hobbes believed that nature was at its basic element, cruel and chaotic

5.2. Summary

5.2.1. In the 18th century in Britain and France, the government continued as it had before, but in Prussia and in other countries, it exploded and explored new territories. During the enlightenment period, though there were no breakthroughs, thinkers continued to study science and make observations and build upon chemistry and biology. The economy continued steadily with consumers continuing to purchase international products, and trade continued to expand. Though there was a lot of change during this time, the people still hadn’t figured out exactly how they needed to round the countries of europe, and they continued to explore new forms of government and culture.

6. Kate Plunkett & Paige Merrill