Future exploration of the outer solar system

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Future exploration of the outer solar system by Mind Map: Future exploration of the outer solar system

1. Matthew Stuttard

1.1. Presented some of the activities of Astrium

1.1.1. Astrium = leading prime contractor for spacecraft development in Europe

1.1.1.1. Planetary science

1.1.1.2. Solar science

1.1.1.3. Fundamental physics

1.1.1.4. astronomical missions

1.1.1.5. JUICE

1.1.1.5.1. = The Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer

1.1.1.5.2. ESA's first L-class mission in 2012

2. Giants of ice

2.1. Ice giant exploration

2.1.1. Uranus

2.1.1.1. Voyager 2 in 1986

2.1.1.2. Easier target to reach

2.1.1.3. Soyuz in 2021

2.1.1.3.1. Use chemical propulsion

2.1.1.3.2. reach Uranus in 2037

2.1.2. Neptune

2.1.2.1. Voyager 2 in 1989

2.1.3. International collaboration

2.1.4. ESA (European Space Agency)

2.1.4.1. Medium class mission

2.1.4.2. Support of 165 scientists across 13 countries

2.1.4.3. Solve questions of Europe's "Cosmic Vision"

2.1.4.4. Preparation for a large-class ice giant mission

2.2. Why do ice giants differ from larger gas giants?

2.2.1. Mission to Uranus to find out

2.2.2. highly assymetric magnetic field

2.2.3. Smaller scale US missions:

2.2.3.1. Juno Jupiter mission

2.2.3.2. Mars Insight mission

3. Exploration of the giant planets Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn & Neptune

3.1. Deep fluid interiors

3.2. Gaseous atmospheres

3.3. Extended magnetospheres

3.4. complex system of planetary rings

3.5. Diverse collection of satellite environments

3.6. Leigh Fletcher (University of Oxford)

3.6.1. Highlights recent discoveries

3.6.1.1. Giant planets are'nt static unchanging worlds

3.6.1.2. Turbulent weather on ice giants

3.6.1.3. frequency of impacts on Jupiter

4. Planetary light

4.1. --> extreme contrast between gas and ice giants

4.2. UV and infrared instruments

4.2.1. Night resolution

4.2.2. View Jupiter

4.3. Juno

4.3.1. only spacecraft currently en route to a giant planet

4.4. now

4.4.1. = limit of what we can be done without spacecraft

4.5. important material

4.5.1. JWST

4.5.1.1. James Webb Space Telescope =

4.5.1.2. focused on

4.5.1.2.1. NASA's

4.5.1.2.2. Reaching Jupiter

4.5.1.2.3. Juno missions

4.5.2. UV + Infrared instruments

4.5.2.1. high-resolution views --> Jupiter's aurora

4.5.2.2. map Jupiter's grvitational field

4.5.2.2.1. internaat structure =

4.6. signals detected

4.6.1. Neptune

4.6.1.1. None

4.6.2. Uranus

4.6.2.1. 1 detection of auroral feature

4.6.3. Saturn + Jupiter

4.6.3.1. complex aurora emissions

4.6.3.1.1. shake internaat field

4.6.3.1.2. fotoprints of funnelled material into polar ionsphere

4.6.3.1.3. info about currents flowing into polar regions

4.7. using H3+

4.7.1. detecting places where sunlight has been blocked by methane

4.7.2. detection aurora

4.7.3. atmospheric temperture

4.7.3.1. conclusions

4.7.3.1.1. 4 worlds --> hotter than from heating by sunlight alone

4.7.3.1.2. Temperture Uranus --> slowly dropping

5. Future technologies

5.1. Propulsion

5.1.1. Combining chemical en solar propulsion

5.1.2. Electric propulsion

5.1.2.1. uses nuclear power sources

5.2. Power generation

5.2.1. Solar power technology

5.2.2. Radiosotope power sources

5.2.2.1. Offers mission longetivity

5.2.3. Richard Ambrosi

5.2.3.1. University of Leicester

5.2.3.2. Develop a European radioactive power source

5.2.3.2.1. Based on on Americium

5.3. Thermal protection

5.4. Radiation protection

5.4.1. used to explore the Jovian system

5.4.2. Shield the sensitive instruments

5.5. Lunar Penetrators

5.5.1. impactors for icy surfaces

5.5.2. adress astrobiological and geophysical science goals

5.5.3. MoonLITE

5.5.3.1. proposed British network of lunar penetrators

5.5.3.2. Study the Moon's interior, structure and evolutionary history

5.5.4. Logical for future surface ecxploration of moons such as Europa and Ganymede

6. Origins of ice giants

6.1. Olivier Mousis (Toulouse)

6.1.1. provided hypotheses for the origins of Uranus and its satellite system

6.1.1.1. Collision with an impactor

6.1.1.2. Extreme tilt of Uranus

6.1.1.2.1. caused during the outward planetary migration phase

6.1.2. 2 extreme cases:

6.1.2.1. Uranus subnebula contains very little water

6.1.2.2. Disc is dominated by water

7. Habitable satellites

7.1. European giant-planet community

7.1.1. JUICE

7.1.1.1. Study the emergence of habitable world aroud giant planets

7.1.1.2. could push the habitable zone beyond Mars and into the outer solar system

7.1.1.3. Tasks

7.1.1.3.1. characterize their ice shells

7.1.1.3.2. characterize oceans

7.1.1.3.3. global composition

7.1.1.3.4. surface evolution

7.1.1.3.5. Study Jupiter's atmosphere

7.1.1.3.6. Reveal the Jovian moons in unprecedented detail

7.1.1.4. Launch in 2022

7.1.1.4.1. 8 year cruise to Jupiter

7.1.1.5. 2 close flybys of Europa in 2031

7.1.1.5.1. cover potentially active regions of the crust

7.1.1.6. Flybys of Ganymede and Callisto

7.1.1.6.1. will help the spacecraft rise up out of the equatorial plane

7.1.1.6.2. reveal higher latitudes of Jupiter

7.1.1.6.3. Sampling a broader range of astrophysical processes in the magnetodisc

7.1.1.7. 2032: enter polar orbit around Ganymede

7.1.1.7.1. Remainder of the mission

7.1.1.8. 2033: final crash to end the mission

7.1.2. Michele Dougherty

7.1.2.1. Responsible for defining the scientific goals of this European-led mission to Jupiter's moon

7.1.2.2. Three icy Gililean satellites

7.1.2.2.1. worlds of water

7.1.2.2.2. icy crusts hiding deep oceans of water

7.1.2.2.3. Ganymede

7.1.2.2.4. Europa

7.1.2.2.5. could be representative of a whole class of planetary objects around other stars

7.1.3. Mark Leese

7.1.3.1. continue exploration of Titan, Saturn's moon

7.1.4. TANDEM

7.1.4.1. Ambitious ESA-led mission

7.1.4.2. orbiter for Titan and Enceladus

7.1.4.2.1. penetrators for the icy moon Enceladus

7.1.4.2.2. Montgolfier balloon and three entry probes for Titan

7.1.4.3. evolved and merged with NASA

7.1.4.3.1. formed the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM)

7.1.4.3.2. mission was not selected

7.2. The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME)

7.2.1. discovery class

7.2.2. conduct the first exploration of an extraterrestrial sea

7.2.3. study:

7.2.3.1. Methane humidity

7.2.3.2. lake surface winds

7.2.3.3. liquid properties

7.2.3.4. taking photos of the descent and shoreline

7.3. Aerial Vehicle for In Situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR)

7.3.1. radioisotope-powered aeroplane

7.3.1.1. study:

7.3.1.1.1. surface geology

7.3.1.1.2. atmospheric science

8. Beautiful rings

8.1. ring system

8.1.1. Jupiter

8.1.1.1. diffuse and dusty

8.1.1.2. Main ring connected

8.1.1.2.1. dust

8.1.1.2.2. gossamer rings

8.1.2. Saturn

8.1.2.1. D- ring

8.1.2.1.1. regular corrugations

8.1.2.1.2. spiral wave

8.1.2.1.3. diffuse and dusty

8.1.2.2. E-ring

8.1.2.2.1. source --> material from Enceladus

8.1.2.2.2. discovered

8.1.2.3. F-ring

8.1.2.3.1. Spirals + streamers

8.1.2.3.2. due to Prometeus

8.1.2.4. C-ring

8.1.2.4.1. dense and narrow

8.1.2.5. Encke gap

8.1.2.5.1. arcs and clumps

8.1.2.6. B-ring

8.1.2.6.1. dense and broad rings

8.1.2.6.2. high optical depth

8.1.2.6.3. most mass

8.1.3. Neptune

8.1.3.1. dusty diffuse rings

8.1.3.1.1. associated satellites

8.1.3.2. contrasten with the narrow and dusty rings

8.1.3.2.1. Uranus

8.1.3.2.2. Saturn

8.1.3.2.3. produced by collisional dust + shepherded by small satellites

8.1.4. Uranus

8.1.4.1. Narrow rings

8.1.4.2. dusty and diffuse rings

8.1.4.3. dense and narrow

8.1.4.3.1. epsilon ring

8.1.4.3.2. confined

8.2. outer solar system community

8.2.1. --> downturn

8.2.1.1. reasons

8.2.1.1.1. tightening budgets

8.2.1.1.2. shifting priorities

8.2.1.1.3. extremely expensive

8.2.1.2. solution

8.2.1.2.1. international collaboration

8.2.1.2.2. excitement

8.2.1.2.3. new ideas for exploring