Discovery and Development

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Discovery and Development by Mind Map: Discovery and Development

1. Pasteur's Germ Theory showed that previous ideas about the cause of disease were wrong

1.1. 1854

1.1.1. was asked to investigate why vats of beer were turning sour

1.1.1.1. through the use of more powerful microscopes, he discovered that there were lots of microbes in the beer

1.1.1.2. discovered that these microorganisms could be killed by heating the liquid and so the liquid didn’t go sour

1.1.2. Carried out experiments on milk, vine and vinegar

1.1.2.1. became convicted that the liquids were being contaminated with microorganisms that floated in the air

1.2. 1860

1.2.1. French Academy of Science set a challenge for scientists asking if they’re able to prove the theory of spontaneous generation

1.2.1.1. Pasteur publicised his results, and was able to prove that the idea of spontaneous generation was wrong

1.2.1.2. and that decay only developed if the mixture was left open to the air and thus exposed to microorganisms

1.3. 1865

1.3.1. investigation of problem affecting the silk industry

1.3.1.1. he began to make a connection between microorganisms and disease

1.4. 1878

1.4.1. published Germ Theory and its Applications to Medicine

1.4.1.1. over the next 20 years, Pasteur’s work had a significant impact on surgery and understanding of infections

1.4.1.2. led to the identification of various microorganisms causing disease - 30 years after his germ theory, vaccinations could be produced to prevent the spread of some diseases

2. Surgical Operations were still very dangerous because hygiene remained poor and wounds often became infected

2.1. even after Pasteur, doctors were unwilling to change their methods

2.1.1. they didn't accept Pasteur's theories and continued on with their unhygienic methods

2.1.1.1. like not washing surgical instruments

2.1.1.2. or not boiling sheets

2.1.1.3. reused bandages and rarely washed their hands or surgical equipment before operations

3. Joseph Lister used carbolic acid to kill microorganisms and prevent infection

3.1. 1864

3.1.1. Lister introduced an antiseptic spray

3.1.1.1. decreased the death rate in patients by 45.7 per cent

3.1.1.1.1. 1866

3.1.1.2. His spray was not used for long though, because

3.1.1.2.1. carbolic acid actually damages the tissues and breathing it in causes many problems for doctor as well as patient

3.1.2. More successful was the special dressings he developed which contained carbolic acid to keep the wound clean

4. Joseph Bazalgette created a new sewer system for London which greatly improved hygiene within the city

4.1. 1842

4.1.1. Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population

4.1.1.1. concluded that much poverty and ill-health was caused by the terrible living conditions and not by idleness

4.1.1.2. Was opposed by many MP's called the "Dirty Party"

4.1.1.2.1. little things happened for. a few weeks

4.1.1.3. Chadwick’s recommendations meant that councils would have to increase the rates and this would be unpopular with the better-off citizens.

4.2. 1848

4.2.1. Cholera Epidemic

4.2.1.1. In the outbreak of 1848/49, over 3,000 people died in the county of Glamorgan. There were at least 350 deaths in Cardiff and 1,389 in Merthyr Tydfil from cholera

4.3. 1858

4.3.1. London was affected by the Great Stink

4.3.1.1. Soon after work began on the London sewage system

4.3.2. 13,000 miles of pipes

4.4. 1872

4.4.1. relatively few councils followed London’s example. By 1872, only 50 councils had Medical Officers of Health

4.4.2. huge cost of carrying out improvements was the biggest obstacle

4.5. 1875

4.5.1. Public Health Act

4.5.1.1. the first time that Government had legislated on health issues.

4.5.1.2. Local authorities were given the power to appoint an officer of health, who had to be a legally qualified medical practitioner

4.5.1.3. improve sanitation in their area, eg collect rubbish, build sewers and provide a clean water supply

4.5.1.4. Made it compulsory for local authorities to provide access to clean water, deal with sewage, remove rubbish and improve housing

5. Florence Nightingale (school + books about nursing)

5.1. 1860

5.1.1. Training School for Nurses established in London (St. Thomas hospital)

5.2. Nightingale did little nursing herself but was an excellent organiser/manager

5.2.1. believed in miasma

5.3. Newspaper reports (via telegram) about her work in Crimea made her well-known upon her return to England and this publicity allowed her to have a major impaction hospitals, as well as be funded to do so (£50,000)

6. Nightingale stressed the importance of cleanliness and ventilation in hospital design

6.1. Nightingale believed in the miasma theory

6.1.1. although now we now that the miasma theory was false, Nightingale's beliefs led to the improvement of hygiene in hospitals and reduced the risk of infection

6.2. she thought it was important to keep everything in the wards clean

6.3. and that the patients have fresh air

6.4. and she also made sure that there was place kept between patients' beds

7. Elizabeth Garrett

7.1. Faced a great deal of unfair treatment because she was a woman but trained as a doctor

7.2. Accepted by the Society of Apothecaries

7.2.1. who later changed their rules so that no more women can join them

7.3. 1858

7.3.1. Medical Act

7.3.1.1. said that doctors also needed to be officially registered with the General Medical Council

7.4. She was a nurse at Middlesex Hospital where she attended lectures meant for the male doctors (until they complained)

7.5. Applied to several medical schools but they all refused just because she was a woman

7.6. Completed a course of medical training, but could not be licensed as none of the three Medical Societies would accept her

7.6.1. Garret's father threatened the Society of Apothecaries who then accepted her, but changed their rules immediately so that no other woman could qualify the same way

7.7. 1873

7.7.1. Dr Garrett became a member of the British Medical Association

7.7.1.1. she was the only woman to be a member for the next 19 years

8. Several other Women wanted to become doctors later on but they all had to go abroad to get their license/degree

8.1. Sophia Jex-Blake

8.1.1. led four other women

8.1.1.1. had to pay additional costs

8.1.1.2. faced opposition and harassment

8.1.1.3. were not allowed to do practical work

8.1.2. persuaded Edinburgh University to let them study medicine

8.1.3. 1874

8.1.3.1. Edinburgh University forced the female students to leave

8.1.3.1.1. claiming it didn't have the authority to accept them back in 1869