Fungi by Ashley Espitia

plants bio 2

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Fungi by Ashley Espitia by Mind Map: Fungi by  Ashley Espitia

1. CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA

1.1. found in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats including hydrothermal vents

1.2. Can be decomposers, parasites, or mutualists

1.2.1. approximatley 1000 species are decomposers.

1.3. Chytrids are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores, called zoospores

1.4. diverged early in fungal evolution

1.5. have cell walls made of chitin

1.5.1. structural polysaccharides, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods

1.6. share certain key enzymes and metabolic pathways with other fungal group

1.7. some form colonies with hyphae

1.7.1. hyphae-one of many connected filaments that collectively make up the mycelium of a fungus

2. GLOMEROMYCOTA

2.1. glomeromycetes were once considered zygomycetes

2.1.1. classified in a separate clade

2.2. form arbuscular mycorrhizae

2.2.1. ECTO-

2.2.1.1. form sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a root and typically grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex

2.2.2. ENDO- (arbuscular)

2.2.2.1. extend arbuscules through the root cell wall and into tubes formed by pushing inward of thw root cell plasma membrane

3. ASCOMYCETES

3.1. (Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats

3.2. produce sexual spores in saclike ascicontained in Ascocarp.

3.2.1. fruiting body of a sac fungus

3.3. commonly called sac fungi

3.4. vary in size and complexity from unicellular yeasts to elaborate cup fungi and morels

3.5. include plant pathogens, decomposers, and symbionts

3.6. reproduce asexually by conidia

3.6.1. haploid spore produced at the tip of a specialized hypha in ascomycetes during sexual reproduction

4. BASIDIOMYCOTA

4.1. include mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi

4.2. Some form mycorrhizae; others are plant parasites

4.3. defined by a clublike structure called a basidium

4.3.1. a transient diploid stage in the life cycle

4.4. also called club fungi

4.5. Many are decomposers of wood

4.6. can produce mushrooms quickly

4.7. Some species may produce “fairy rings”

4.7.1. rings of mushrooms

5. LICHENS

5.1. a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism + fungus

5.2. Millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae

5.3. Photosynthetic organism = green algae or cyanobacteria

5.3.1. Algae: provide carbon compounds

5.3.2. Cyanobacteria: Provide carbon compounds and sometimes organic nitrogen

5.4. Fungal organism = most often an ascomycete

5.5. Fructose shrublike lichens

5.5.1. foliose leaflike lichens

5.5.1.1. Crustose (encrusting) lichens

5.6. Reproduce sexually and asexually.

5.6.1. Asexual reproduction is by fragmentation or the formation of soredia, small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae

5.7. The symbioses are so complete that lichens are given scientific names

5.8. Algae or cyanobacteria occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface

6. PROVIDE THE ENVIRONMENT FOR GROWTH

7. Fungi as Parasites

7.1. About 30% of known fungal species are parasites or pathogens

7.2. Ergot of rye

7.2.1. Ascomycete-produces toxins

7.2.2. Ergotism is characterized by gangrene, nervous spasms, burning sensations, hallucinations, and temporary insanity

7.3. general term for a fungal infection in animals is mycosis

7.3.1. Ringworm and athlete’s foot (human mycoses)

7.4. Systemic mycoses spread through the body

7.5. Some mycoses are opportunistic

7.5.1. yeast infections

8. Practical Uses of Fungi for Humans

8.1. Eat many fungi

8.2. Make cheeses, alcoholic beverages, and bread

8.3. Treatment of bacterial infections-antibiotics

8.4. For example, the ascomycete Penicillium

8.4.1. has the philiads, conidas, conidophore

8.5. Genetic research on fungi is leading to applications in biotechnology

8.5.1. For example, scientists are using Saccharomyces(Yeast) to study homologs of the genes involved in Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases

8.5.1.1. For example, insulin-like growth factor can be produced in the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

8.5.1.2. For example, insulin-like growth factor can be produced in the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

9. ZYGOMYCETES

9.1. exhibit great diversity of life histories

9.1.1. nclude fast-growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts

9.2. The zygomycetes are named for their sexually produced zygosporangia

9.2.1. site of karyogamy and then meiosis

9.2.2. esistant to freezing and dryingcan survive unfavorable conditions

9.3. Some zygomycetes, such as Pilobolus, can actually “aim” and shoot their sporangia toward bright light

10. Mighty Mushrooms

10.1. Diverse and widespread

10.2. Essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems

10.2.1. they break down organic material

10.2.2. recycle vital nutrients

10.3. About 100,000 species of fungi have been described

10.3.1. estimated there are actually 1.5 million species

10.4. Armillaria ostoyae

10.4.1. 965 hectares 10,000 m2( > 9 million m2)

11. Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption

11.1. Key traits

11.1.1. Nutrition and Ecology

11.1.1.1. Fungi are heterotrophs

11.1.1.1.1. Absorptive heterotrophy

11.1.1.2. The versatility of these enzymes contributes to fungi’s ecological success

11.1.1.2.1. Evolutionary advantage

11.1.2. Lifestyle

11.1.2.1. Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles

11.1.2.1.1. Decomposers Parasites Mutualists

11.1.3. Body Structure

11.1.3.1. The most common are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts)

11.1.3.1.1. Some species grow as either filaments or yeasts, Some both

11.1.3.2. The morphology of multicellular fungi enhancestheir ability to absorb nutrients

11.1.3.3. Fungi consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption

11.1.3.3.1. mycelium’s structure maximizes its surface-to-volume ratio

11.1.3.4. Most fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa, with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles

11.1.3.5. Coenocytic fungi lack septa and have a continuous cytoplasmic mass with hundreds or thousands of nuclei

12. Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi

12.1. Some hyphae are adapted for trapping and killing prey

12.2. Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae called haustoriathat allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host

12.3. Mycorrhizaeare mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots

12.3.1. Deliver phosphate ions and minerals to plants,

12.3.2. Mycorrhizal fungi colonize soils by the dispersal of haploid cells called spores

12.3.3. Most vascular plants have mycorrhizae

12.4. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex

12.5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane

13. Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles

13.1. Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually

13.2. Fungi can produce spores from different types of life cycles

14. Asexual Reproduction

14.1. Molds produce haploid spores by mitosis and form visible mycelia

14.2. yeasts reproduce asexually by simple cell division and the pinching of “bud cells” from a parent cell

14.3. Some fungi can grow as yeasts and as filamentous mycelia

14.4. Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual stage

14.5. Mycologists have traditionally called these deuteromycetes

14.5.1. Reclassified once their sexual stage is discovered

14.5.2. Mycologists can now also use genomic techniques to classify fungi

15. The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist

15.1. Fungi and animals are more closely related to each other than they are to plants or other eukaryotes

15.2. Opisthokonts clade:

15.2.1. Fungi, Animals, Protists (Nucleariids)

15.3. Early-Diverging Fungal Groups

15.3.1. Genomic studies have identified chytrids in the genus Rozella as an early diverging fungal lineage

15.3.1.1. Rozella and other members of the unicellular group, “cryptomycota”lack chitin-rich cell walls

15.3.1.1.1. Rozella and other members of the unicellular group, “cryptomycota”lack chitin-rich cell walls

15.4. The Move to Land

15.4.1. Fungi were among the earliest colonizers of land

15.4.1.1. Fossil evidence

15.4.1.1.1. fungi formed mutualistic relationships with early land plants

15.4.2. Genomic analysis

15.4.2.1. Genes (sym genes) involved in mycorrhizal formation were likely present in the common ancestor to land plants