Presenting... Grounded Theory Research by Terry, Trina and Christine. Please take a look around, there are notes and audio files to explore. Make sure the Properties box is open so you can access all the information.
Please watch Youtube video by Dr. Graham Gibbs, 4:45-end. Access it on the links tab.
Researchers need to set aside any preconceptions they may already have in order to view the data as objectively.
Judging when category saturation is complete is subjective.
Glasser, who co-founded GT with Strauss in 1967, later criticized Strauss' approach as being too prescribed and structured. Charmaz criticized Strauss and Corbin's approach for being too structured and said that the use of jargon, diagrams and conceptual maps is an attempt by the researchers to gain power through their use.
Is unique among qualitative approaches in that it was developed within a single discipline, Sociology. It is now also popular in other disciplines such as nursing, education, and psychology.
Classic grounded theory assumes an objective observer who uses a very rigorous, systemic set of procedures to collect and analyze data in order to develop a theory to explain the data.
Constructivist grounded theory recognizes multiple realities and can have a more abstract approach to data collection and analysis. The resulting 'theory' is recognized to be only suggestive as it is an interpretation of how the subjects construct their realities.
Strauss and Glaser originally worked together to develop a framework for GT. Shortly after, however, they went their separate ways; Glaser felt Strauss was too rigid in his approach. Much later Charmaz adopted GT but with certain changes, creating "constructivist grounded theory".
Glaser is very clear that literature reviews should not be done prior to developing the theory in order to maintain an open mind. In the linked video he goes so far as to say that it is "a waste of time" as it often does not relate well to the final theory.
See audio file.
Used when no theory exists to explain the process or when the theory available is incomplete or does not fit the context.
To generate or discover a theory based on the views of a large number of participants.
What was the process? What was central to the process? What influences or causes are involved? What strategies were used? What were the outcomes?
Strauss and Corbin's Model
Is this methodology right for the research question?
Open coding, Go to the field, Go to the office, Go back to the field, Go back to the office
Axial Coding, Axial coding paradigm, Comparative method of analysis, Go back to the field, Go back to the office
Conditional Matrix (optional)
Examples, "A Grounded Theory of Behavior Management Strategy Selection, Implementation, and Perceived Effectiveness Reported by First-Year Elementary Teachers" by Smart and Igo (2010), "Coping strategies of high school students with learning disabilities" by Givon and Court (2009), "Moderated guiding: a grounded theory of nursing practice in end-of-life care" by McCallin (2011)
The Charmaz model.
Examples, "'Discovering' chronic illness: Using grounded theory" by Charmaz (1990), "Using grounded theory and action research to raise attainment in, and enjoyment of, reading" by Butterfield (2009)
End result is a theory, often summarized into a diagram, either a web or using concentric circles (eg. Creswell, p.293) which is then explained in detail.
Reporting can be in the form of papers, theses, monographs and presentations.
The examples provided all presented their theories in chart form. This was followed by a detailed description of the different parts of the chart.
Please watch Youtube clip by Dr. Graham Gibbs from the University of Huddersfield in the UK. Watch until 4:45
Published "The Discovery of grounded theory" with Glaser in 1967
Often worked with Juliet Corbin
Eg. Corbin & Strauss, 2008
Developed classic grounded theory with Strauss
Founded the Grounded Theory Institute
Often works with Judith Holton, Editor-in-chief of Grounded Theory Review
Eg. Glaser & Holton, 2004
Developed constructivist Grounded Theory
Eg. Charmaz, 1990
Uses classic grounded theory
Contributor and reviewer of Grounded Theory Review
One of 13 researchers of Grounded Theory Online
Eg. McCallin, 2011
Butterfield, J. (2009). Using grounded theory and action research to raise attainment in, and enjoyment of, reading. Educational psychology in practice, 25(4), 315-326.
Charmaz, K. (1990). 'Discovering' chronic illness: Using grounded theory. Social science & medicine, 30(11), 1161-1172.
Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. L. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Givon, S. & Court, D. (2010). Coping strategies of high school students with learning disabilities: a longitudinal qualitative study and grounded theory. International journal of qualitative studies in education, 23(3), 283-303.
Glaser, B., & Holton, J. (2004). Remodeling Grounded Theory. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 5(2), 1-17.
Glaser, B.G. & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Transaction Publishers.
McCallin, A.M. (2011). Moderated guiding: a grounded theory of nursing practice in end-of-life care. Journal of clinical nursing, 20(15-16), 2325-2333.
Smart, J.B. & Igo, B.L. (2010). A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers. The elementary school journal, 110(4), 567-584.