Behavioural neuroscience

behavioural vince

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
Behavioural neuroscience by Mind Map: Behavioural neuroscience

1. Lecture 6: Learning and Memory

1.1. Learning and memory are intrinsically connected

1.2. Learning

1.2.1. Definition: act/process of gaining knowledge/ skill. Induces changes in the brain

1.2.2. Easier to learn by association

1.2.3. Non associative learning

1.2.3.1. Habituation/sensitization in Aplysia/Marine slug studies

1.2.3.1.1. Identical central nervous systems

1.2.3.1.2. Withdrawal of Siphon/gill by defensive reflex. Used as readout

1.2.3.1.3. Can be used to study habituation, sensitisation, short term and long term memory.

1.2.3.1.4. Simple cellular connection model

1.2.3.2. Perceptual learning

1.2.3.2.1. Learning via all sensory systems, visual information is most effective in learning.

1.2.3.2.2. perceptual short-term memory

1.2.4. Associative learning

1.2.4.1. Classical conditioning

1.2.4.1.1. Conditioning stimulus is linked to unconditioned stimulus leading to certain response. Strengthened by repetition.

1.2.4.1.2. Basis of classical conditioning described by hebbian plasticity.

1.2.4.2. Operant conditioning

1.2.4.2.1. Association between STIMULUS and RESPONSE. REINFORCING by negative or positive stimuli.

1.2.4.2.2. Model of instrumental conditioning

1.3. Memory

1.3.1. Definition process by which what is learned pesists over time. Stored and retrieved

1.3.2. From Psychological research, described as loss of memory over time. This lead to the differentiation of 2 memory life spans (long and short), and effect of repetition increased the lifetime of memory.

1.3.2.1. Primary(short-term) memory

1.3.2.1.1. Second-minutes

1.3.2.1.2. extension of present moment

1.3.2.2. Secondary(long-term) memory

1.3.2.2.1. Weeks-month

1.3.2.2.2. can be consulted by reaching back into the past

1.3.3. Consolidation: imprinting of information in the memory

1.3.4. Learning and memory storage processes

1.3.4.1. Papez circuit

1.3.4.1.1. Partially true for declarative memory

1.3.4.2. Mishkin's circuit

1.3.4.2.1. Nuclei basalis meynert involved in AD

1.3.5. Patient H.M.

1.3.5.1. bilateral removal of medial lateral lobe, including hippocampus

1.3.5.1.1. Retrograde amnesia

1.3.5.1.2. Anterograde amnesia

1.3.5.2. Brenda miller study

1.3.5.2.1. Ability to acquire new memories, cerebral function is needed

1.3.5.2.2. Medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are not required for immediate memory

1.3.5.2.3. MTL and hippocampus are NOT the ultimate storage devices

1.3.5.2.4. Some parts of memory do not require MTLs.

2. Lecture 7: P.P de Deyn lectures I (Recorded lecture follow up)

2.1. anxiety

2.2. free will

2.3. BPSD management

3. Lecture 1: novelty seeking(word)

4. Lecture 2: Cerebellum(word)

5. Lecture 3: Aggression and Pain (word document )

6. Lecture 8: Circadian rhythm

7. Lecture 4: Emotions

8. Lecture 9: Sleep, Memory and AD

9. Lecture 10: P.P de Deyn lectures II

10. Lecture 5: Frontal lobe behaviour

10.1. First 10 minutes missed, slides until motor cortex

10.2. Frontal Lobe

10.2.1. Motor cortex

10.2.1.1. Primary motor cortex

10.2.1.1.1. Slide pathways involvement sensory information

10.2.1.2. Supplementary motor area

10.2.1.3. Premotor cortex

10.2.1.3.1. Learning and executing complex movement using sensory input. (e.g. visual dorsal and ventral stream, proprioception of the hand)

10.2.1.3.2. Direction of movement

10.2.2. Broca's area

10.2.2.1. See lecture Cerebellum

10.2.3. Frontal eye field

10.2.3.1. Focusses visual attention

10.2.3.2. controls eye movement

10.2.3.3. saccadic movements

10.2.3.3.1. jumping like movements of eyes instead of smooth moving along object.

10.2.3.4. face/emotion identification

10.2.4. Prefrontal cortex

10.2.4.1. Phineas Gage

10.2.4.1.1. Change in personality after accident

10.2.4.1.2. Most important: various aspects "animal like behaviour"

10.2.4.2. Brodmann areas

10.2.4.2.1. structural differences in layers of neocortex, 52 total specifical area's.

10.2.4.2.2. Not the same as functional structures

10.2.4.2.3. Nissil staining

10.2.4.3. Cortical types

10.2.4.3.1. Agranular

10.2.4.3.2. Dysgranular

10.2.4.3.3. ....

10.2.4.3.4. ..

10.2.4.3.5. All types of neurons are involved in prefrontal cortex

10.2.4.4. Functional division

10.2.4.4.1. NEEDED FOR ASSIGNMENT

10.2.4.4.2. Dorsolateral PFC

10.2.4.4.3. Ventral medial PFC

10.2.4.4.4. Orbitofrontal cortex

10.2.4.4.5. Anterior cingulate cortex

10.2.4.5. Executive functions

10.2.4.5.1. CEO of the brain

10.2.4.5.2. Goal directed action and adaptive responses

10.2.4.5.3. Inhibitory control

10.2.4.5.4. Working memory

10.2.4.5.5. Cognitive flexibility

10.2.4.5.6. Slide common functions

10.2.4.6. Connectivity

10.2.4.6.1. Basal ganglia, Motor cortex, Cerebellum

10.2.4.6.2. Dorsomedial thalamic nuclei (thalamus)

10.2.4.6.3. Hippocampus, MTS

10.2.4.6.4. Cingulate cortex, amygdala

10.2.4.6.5. hypothalamus

10.2.4.6.6. Brainstem nuclei

10.2.4.7. Across species

10.2.4.7.1. ......

10.2.4.8. Pruning in brain development

10.2.4.8.1. Gray matter not required are "cut out" so that more functional connections can be made.

10.2.4.8.2. Starts in the back, moves to the front

10.2.4.8.3. Quick in childhood and slows down with age. 25 PFC is fully developed.

10.2.4.8.4. Upstairs(age 7, with reason, PFC already involved) and Downstairs(age 3, no reason) tantrum limbic development.

10.2.4.8.5. Teenager years, still PFC is not controlled, risk taking behaviour related to dopamine reward system and increased hormone levels

10.2.5. Frontal lobe syndroms

10.2.5.1. Dorsolateral (dysexcutive) PFC

10.2.5.1.1. Field dependent behaviour, Do behaviour that is connected with the object that is perceived (also lack design fluency)

10.2.5.1.2. Perseverative behaviour, same behaviour time and time again

10.2.5.1.3. Personaliry changes, less emotions against environment

10.2.5.2. Orbito frontal cortex

10.2.5.2.1. Diminished concern about consequences

10.2.5.2.2. Social disinhibition and increased impulsivity

10.2.5.2.3. logorrhea (verbal diarrhea)

10.2.5.2.4. Similar to child like behaviour since they also don't have this cortex developed (most at the front?)

10.2.5.3. Ventromedial PFC

10.2.5.3.1. Decreased social emotions and empathy

10.2.5.3.2. impaired personal and social decision making.

10.2.5.4. Anterior cingulate cortex

10.2.5.4.1. Reduction/lack off speach reduction = mutism, Do not move = Akinetic

10.2.5.4.2. Abulia, lack of will/initiative and have decreased ......

10.2.5.5. Neuropsychological Tests

10.2.5.5.1. Slide, what do they measure

10.2.5.5.2. Inhibitory control test

10.2.5.5.3. Working memory

10.2.5.5.4. Cognitive flexibility

10.2.5.5.5. Names of Tests that also include other aspects that are closely related to PFC function

10.2.5.5.6. NPI