EU and Driverless Cars!

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EU and Driverless Cars! by Mind Map: EU and Driverless Cars!

1. 2010: the Institute of Control Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig demonstrated the first driverless car running on public streets in Germany

1.1. The first driveless car was used in europe

2. Advantages

2.1. Safety

2.1.1. Would eliminate accidents caused by driver error

2.1.1.1. because the sensor will detect the objects near the car

2.2. Welfare

2.2.1. relieve travelers from driving and navigation chores

2.2.1.1. allow drivers to have more time for leisure or work

2.3. Traffic

2.3.1. Can improve traffic flow, dramatically increase highway capacity and reduce or eliminate traffic jams

2.4. Costs

2.4.1. safer driving may lead to the reduction of the costs of vehicle insurance

3. Disadvantages

3.1. Safety

3.1.1. Fatal Accident

3.1.1.1. A Tesla Model S was involved when the autopilot was active in Williston, Florida on 7 May 2016

3.1.1.1.1. the car failed to apply the brakes

3.1.1.1.2. Driver was killed in a crash with an 18-wheel tractor-trailer

3.1.2. Collisions

3.1.2.1. Google self-driving cars have been involved in 14 collisions

3.2. Job losses

3.2.1. many drivers may loss their income and jobs

3.2.1.1. For example: more than 3.5 million truck drivers may loss their job in the U.S.

3.3. Environmental Impacts

3.3.1. Tesla's lithium-ion batteries contain nickel and cobalt

3.3.1.1. may release toxic during the process of refining

3.3.2. an incentive to live far away from cities

3.3.2.1. increasing travel distances

3.3.2.1.1. inducing more urban sprawl, more fuel consumption and an increase in the carbon footprint of urban travel

3.4. Secruity

3.4.1. hacking of the system may be involved

4. Definition

4.1. A robotic vehicle that is designed to travel between destinations without a human operator.

4.2. Fully autonomous : a vehicle must be able to navigate without human intervention to a predetermined destination over roads that have not been adapted for its use.

5. Classification

5.1. Levels of driving automation

5.1.1. 0: No Driving Automation

5.1.1.1. Fully manual system

5.1.2. 1: Driver Assistance

5.1.3. 2: Partial Driving Automation

5.1.4. 3: Conditional Driving Automation

5.1.5. 4: High Driving Automation

5.1.6. 5: Full Driving Automation

5.1.6.1. Fully automated system

6. Companies developing and/or testing driverless cars

6.1. Audi

6.2. BMW

6.3. Ford

6.4. Google

6.5. General Motors

6.6. Volkswagen

6.7. Volvo

6.8. Telsa

7. History

7.1. 2011: the Freie Universität Berlin developed two driverless cars to drive in the innercity of Berlin

7.2. 2012: a Google self-driving car passed the test of running in a test route in the city of Las Vegas, Nevada

7.3. 2014: Tesla Motor announced its first version of AutoPilot for Model S cars

7.4. 2017: Audi announced that its new A8 will be fully self-driving for speeds up to 60 km/h using its Audi AI

8. Current situation

8.1. Self-driving vehicles are not yet legal on most roads. In June 2011, Nevada, US became the first jurisdiction in the world to allow driverless cars on public roadways.

8.2. 2016: the U.S. Department of Transportation released its Federal Automated Vehicles Policy

9. Technology

9.1. SLAM

9.2. DATMO

9.3. RTLS

9.4. Senors involved

9.4.1. Lidar

9.4.2. Stereo vision

9.4.3. GPS

9.4.3.1. locate positional information

9.4.4. IMU

9.4.4.1. localize itself & refine its position estimate as well as to build a three-dimensional image of its environment

10. Moral issues

10.1. The Trolley Problem

10.1.1. Can the driverless system help the driver to face the moral dilemma when accidents happen?

11. Benefits

11.1. 1-Safer roads

11.2. 2-Better Accessibility.

11.3. 3-Economic growth

11.4. 4-Protection of the enviroment

11.5. 5-New jobs

12. What is EU doing?

12.1. EU policies and legislation concerning automated and connected transport should cover all transport modes, including short-sea shipping, inland waterway vessels, drones transporting goods and light rail systems.

12.2. Standardisation efforts at international level need to be further coordinated to ensure safety and the interoperability of vehicles across borders.

12.3. Event data recorders should be compulsory in automated vehicles to improve accident investigations and tackle the issue of liability.

12.4. To increase the trust of Europeans in driverless vehicles, rules covering data protection and ethics in the automated transport sector should be developed without delay.

12.5. Special attention should be given to the development of self-driving vehicles that are accessible for people with reduced mobility or disabilities.