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1. liberalism is a political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual

1.1. Liberals typically believe that government is necessary to protect individuals from being harmed by others

2. General characteristics

2.1. preoccupation with individuality, as compared to the emphasis in other civilizations on status, caste, and tradition.

2.2. practice of adversariality in European political and economic life

2.3. Liberalism has a close but sometimes uneasy relationship with democracy

2.4. highly sensitive to time and circumstance

3. Classical liberalism

3.1. Political foundations

3.2. Liberalism and democracy

3.2.1. Seperation of powers

3.2.2. Periodic election

3.2.3. Rights

3.3. Economic foundations

3.4. Liberalism and utilitarianism

4. Modern liberalism

4.1. Problem of market economies

4.2. The modern liberal program

4.2.1. limited intervention in the market

4.2.2. Greater equality of wealth and income

4.3. Postwar liberalism to the 1960s

4.4. World war I and the great depresssion

5. Contemporary liberalism

5.1. The revival of classical liberalism

5.2. Civil right and social issues