Bone Fracture

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Bone Fracture by Mind Map: Bone Fracture

1. Green - stick fracture (young animal.. One side broken and other side bent)

2. Oblique Spiral Multiple Maintain in length and a ligament prevent rotation

3. Acc to stability

3.1. Stable

3.2. Unstable

4. Incomplete

4.1. Star fracture ( central point+ radiating fissure+ animal kick)

4.2. Fissure fracture ( single or multiple fissure in bone.. Mature animal)

4.3. Deferred fracture " subperiosreal" : separation of bone fragment without displacement.. Periosteum intact

4.4. Splintered or partial fracture : separation of bone fragment with displacement.. Periosteum rupture)

5. Complete

5.1. acc to soft tissue damage

5.1.1. Simple " closed" fracture: skin intact

5.1.2. Compound *open* fracture

5.1.2.1. 1: communication bet fracture and skin wound 2: three degree # first degree: skin wound from inside # second degree: skin wound from outside + soft tissue injury + contamination # third degree: skin wound from outside+ extensive tissue damage + bone loss + gross contamination

5.1.3. Complicated fracture: facial wound complicated by fracture of the frontal bone with exposure of the concho frontal sinus

5.2. Transverse green- stick Impacted Angular deformity

5.3. acc to number of fracture lines

5.3.1. 1: single 2: comminuted 3: multiple *segmental*

5.4. Acc to direction of fracture lines

5.4.1. 1: transverse 2: oblique 3: spiral 4: longitudinal

5.5. Acc to location of fracture *part of bone involved*

5.5.1. 1: diaphyseal fracture *fracture shaft of the bone*

5.5.2. Metaphyseal fracture "fracture of adult bone "proximal or distal"

5.5.3. Physeal fracture *young animal*

5.5.3.1. Type 1: fracture physis Type 2: fracture physis + distal diaphysis Type 3: fracture physis + epiphysis (articular) Type 4: fracture physis + epiphysis + distal diaphysis Type 5: crushing injuries of physis not visible radiographically + physeal function ceases

5.5.4. Epiphyseal fracture

5.5.4.1. 1: fracture epiphysis of mature bone 2: Articular... True articular... Condylar

5.6. Acc to displacement of bone fragment

5.6.1. 1: transverse fracture 2: longitudinal displacement fracture 3: overlapped displacement fracture 4: overlapped displacement fracture 5: angular fracture 6: avulsed fracture 7: impacted fracture 8: compressed fracture 9: depressed fracture