Sociology education revision

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Sociology education revision by Mind Map: Sociology education revision

1. class differences in achievement- external factors

1.1. cultural deprevation

1.1.1. Language: Basil Bernstien restricted/elaborated speech codes

1.1.2. Parents education: Douglas found WC parents placed less value on education, eg, less ambitious, therefore pupils have lower levels of motivation & achievement. Bernstien& Young, found MC mothers are more likely to buy educational toys, books and activities to stimulate educational development.

1.1.3. WC subculture: Sugarman argues that WC subcultures have 4 features that act as a barrier to educational success: fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification& present time orientation.

1.2. Material deprevation

1.2.1. Housing: direct effects= overcrowding, indirect effects= health& welfare.

1.2.2. Diet& health: Wilkinson argues that the lower the social class for 10 year olds the higher the rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders.

1.2.3. Financial support& cost of education: Tanner et al, costs of school equipment, eg uniform, transport, put a heavy burden on WC families.

2. Class differences in achievement- internal factors

2.1. Labelling

2.1.1. Becker, study of 60 Chicago high school teachers found that teachers judge students around the ideal pupil.

2.1.2. Rist, study of American kindergarden showed teachers used info about the child's home backgrounds& appearance to place them into split groups. Tigers (MC), Clowns and Cardinals (WC).

2.2. Pupil subcultures

2.2.1. pro-school subculture= largely MC, gain status through academic success.

2.2.2. Anti-school subcultures= Largely WC, gain status through their peers, eg, smoking, not doing homework.

2.3. Self fulfilling prophecy

2.3.1. Rosenthal and Jacobson, study of community school in California, showed how teachers expectations affect pupils achievement.

2.4. Streaming

2.4.1. A-C economy, institutions value students that are in the A-C economy as they boost ratings and statistics.

3. Ethnic differences in achievement- external factors

3.1. Cultural deprevation

3.1.1. intellectual and linguistic skills: Bereiter & Engelmann consider the language spoken by low-income black American families as inadequate for educational success. ungrammatical, disjointed and incapable of expressing abstract ideas.

3.1.2. Attitudes and values: Lack of motivation as a lack of motivation as a major cause of the failure of many black children. Fatalistic attitude that does not value education.

3.1.3. Family structure and parental support: Moynihan argues that many black families are headed by a lone mother, children are then deprived of adequate care because she struggles financially due to the absence of the male breadwinner.

3.2. Material deprevation