Kamakura Japan - Under the divine leadership of Minamoto Yoritomo the warrior culture of Japan op...

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Kamakura Japan - Under the divine leadership of Minamoto Yoritomo the warrior culture of Japan opened itself to the world and was unified in spirit and what it means to be Japanese. The cultural and social diversification contributed to a thriving and growing economy and class acceptance. by Mind Map: Kamakura Japan - Under the divine leadership of Minamoto Yoritomo the warrior culture of Japan opened itself to the world and was unified in spirit and what it means to be Japanese. The cultural and social diversification contributed to a thriving and growing economy and class acceptance.

1. Technology - Kamakura technology fueled the developmentof the samurai by providing unique armour and weapons to give Japan its iconic figure.

1.1. Architecture

1.1.1. " Jar House" Poor women, servants and nuns Serves as places of retirement

1.1.2. Square plans Goble and entrances Houses were small

1.1.3. Town houses Clay, bamboo Roofs were made of boards Board walls Windows fitted with upright swinging shutters

1.2. Warfare

1.2.1. Armour Layers 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th

2. Warrior Culture (Bushido)

2.1. 7 Principles of Bushido

2.1.1. Gi - Truth

2.1.2. Makoto - Honesty

2.1.3. Yu - Courage

2.1.4. Jin - Compassion

2.1.5. Chugo - Loyalty

2.1.6. Rei - Action

2.1.7. Melyo - Honour/Glory

2.2. Victory/Defeat

2.2.1. Victors behead enemies in order to prove their victory

2.2.2. Defeated samurai were obliged to commit Seppuku/Hari-Kari (ritual suicide) in order to preserve their family honour to avoid capture (dishonour) Self dismemberment while companion would deapitate

2.3. Warfare

2.3.1. Had no fear of death

2.3.2. Death in battle considered to be glorious

2.3.3. Dueled one-on-one (instead of mass battles) Concidered conventional warfare to be inferior to Japanese combat

2.4. Samurai

2.4.1. Did not value material goods or riches

2.4.2. Honest men who lived with honor and pride

2.4.3. Lived by the Bushido code

2.4.4. Regarded their swords (Katanas) as their own souls

3. Economy - Despite a slow awakening to other civilized cultures Japan quickly adapted to become a socially and economically diverse people. The equality created helped to establish a middle class to further construct a stable and increasingly prosperous economy.

3.1. Decline in Shoen (private manors)

3.1.1. Imposed very high taxes on their people

3.1.2. Left little for the commoners to spend money on other items

3.1.3. New markets and towns begin to form Markets held more often Sold a variety of wares ceramics, silk, iron goods ect Some markets even held in military encampments

3.2. Improved techonology in farming and in other economic areas

3.2.1. Double cropping

3.2.2. New fishing ports and towns

3.2.3. Larger use of animals as economical assets

3.2.4. Advent of new forms of bellows and creation of salt fields Labour saving techniques

3.3. Rise of the middle class

3.3.1. Ownership of land Permanent shops

3.3.2. More money being spent with decline in Shoen

3.3.3. Creation of merchants and moneylenders New middle class Also included artisans and craftsmen Sold commodities at markets

3.4. Foreign trading partners in China and Korea

3.4.1. Japans upper class became in dept with foreign traders

3.4.2. The use of bills as currency Copper coinage shipped in from China Predominetly used towards second half of Kamakura period

3.5. Increased urban population and trading in cities

3.5.1. 200,000 city dwellers

3.5.2. ex. Kamkura city

3.5.3. Urbanization

4. Government Bakufu (tent headquarters) - Government in Kamakura Japan was extremely well organized and functioned for hundreds of years allowing Japan to prosper culturally and economically in stability and power.

4.1. Made up of "Organs"

4.1.1. 1st Central Organ - Samurai-dokora Assigned military duties Rewarded and punished warriors Concerned about personal lives of the warriors Marriage Family Friends Recreation

4.1.2. 2nd Organ - Mandokora Made politics comparable to the senate in Canada Leader is called shikken

4.1.3. 3rd Organ - Monchujo Final court of appeal Law made under Minamoto's house law Took careful evidence Gave out fair judgements

4.2. Head of government is Yorimoto

4.2.1. Practiced practical power over Japan - had more power than the emperor himself who was just a figure head at the time Took control using warriors

5. Commoner Culture - The culture of the Kamakura period was a reflection of the turbulent times out which it was born. It was a time which gave way to the legendary samurai and many creative innovations in the arts and in cuisine that gives Japan the reputation it holds to this day.

5.1. The Arts

5.1.1. Artists sought simplicity to demonstrate the beauty of nature "Starting" elements included in artwork to bring mind closer to elightenment "Shake" a person out of reality

5.1.2. Respected nature Objects arranged in odd numbers (irregularity in nature)

5.1.3. Borrowed aspects of chinese influences Refined aspects over time, making them uniqely Japanese

5.2. Cuisine

5.2.1. Fish, birds and vegatables Kamakura cuisine simpler than extravagent foods of Heian Era

5.2.2. Rice was a staple before Kamakura Believed short grain rice was superior to long grain rice

5.2.3. Conciderable change in diet Sam edishes still popular in contemporary Japan Changes to kitchen Changed caused by Kamakura Shogunate + Zen Buddhism

5.2.4. Zen Buddhism introduced Shojin-Ryori (devotion cuisine) Omitance of meats and alcohols (vegatarian) Sought to respect the individual flavours of vegatables Still a popular form of dining in modern Japanese restaurants

5.3. Martial Arts

5.3.1. Vast variety of different fighting styles used by samurai

5.3.2. Samurai required to study martial arts, each family had unique fighting style

5.3.3. Jui-jitsu Unarmed combat Allowed samurai to defend themselves when unarmed inscludes throws, pins and locks

5.3.4. Style revolves around weapons of the era (swords, polearms, staffs ect)

5.4. Celebrations

5.4.1. Tsurugaoka Hachimangu Shrine = symbol of Kamakura Era

5.4.2. Kanakwa Matsuri celebrates Kamakuras samurai past (held at shrine) Yabusome (3rd Sunday) Aim is to bolster mental strength of samurai warriors Event of horseback archery Shizuka Na Maidance (2nd Sunday) Tells story of Princess Shizuka who was taken captive by the enemy Yoritomo out of jealousy for loving warlord Yoshitsure

6. Religion - The kamakura period in Japan was a time of spiritual awakening and development.

6.1. Confucianism

6.1.1. Minor influence and popularity

6.1.2. Originated in China

6.1.3. Taught ethics Fidelity Submission

6.2. Shintoism

6.2.1. Moral Principals worship of clan deities Ancestor worship

6.2.2. Communal worship Clan worship Military groups and families grew Rituals passed down (by family and by village) Varrying traditions

6.3. Buddhism

6.3.1. Imported from China in the 9th century "Tendai" sect Founded by Saieno Branched into new sects Zen Lotus

6.3.2. "Shingon" sect Great monestary of Heizan (20,000 monks at peak)

6.3.3. Merged with Shintoism Elite "Nora" sect

7. Social - The social structure of Kamakura society was well defined and organized. Based upon honour and practical power, everyone in the hierarchy were loyal to those above them. It is this firm structure that allowed Japan to grow economically and politically.

7.1. Japanese Hierarchy

7.1.1. Shogun (military lord) Minamoto Yoritomo

7.1.2. Emperor Theologically higher than the Shogun himself, in reality, the emperor had very little power during this period Similar to the Queen of England herself compared to the Prime Minister

7.1.3. Daimyos Military land owners

7.1.4. Samurai Warriors Led sober lives Expected to set good examples to peasants

7.1.5. Ronin Similar to samurais but did not have a master, they were hired merchants (body gaurds) who were usually hired by other wealthy merchants

7.1.6. Peasants Myoshu held conciderable local power Owned myoden Saden cultivators Worked on isshikden

7.1.7. Artisans Viewed by public as lazy and unnecessary Rice was just that important and hard to farm

7.1.8. Merchants However they lived a better life than most peasants Lived "dishonerable" lives Sold other peoples items and hard work

7.1.9. Slaves

8. Geography - Japans boasts a thriving and diverse geography providing both wonderful opportunities to foster a young civilization as well as providing challenging obsticles for those people to overcome.

8.1. Creation Myth of Iznagi and Inzanami

8.1.1. Many alluvial plains for life to flourish 5 substantial alluvial plains Ishikari in Hokkaido Niigata in Northern Honshu Nobii in Central Honshu Osaka and Tsukushi in Norther Kyushu Kanto which is the largest at 32,375sq/km Central Honshu

8.2. Archipelago of Japan is 380,000sq/km

8.2.1. 4 primary island with thousands of smaller islands Honshu 231,000sq/km Hokkaido 83,000sq/km Kyushu 42,000sq/km Shikoku 19,000sq/km

8.3. Heavy precipitation and many flowing rivers

8.3.1. Many small pockets for civilization to take hold - can be directly realted to the evolution of the Shoen (private manors)

8.3.2. Trees very important to Japanese people- 70% of Japan is forested Shoen lords enacted policies to protect forests from being cut down

8.4. Very mountinous land

8.4.1. 20 peaks over 3000m

8.4.2. 75% of the land of Japan is at a slope of 15degrees or greater

8.4.3. Kyushu and Shikoku all mountinous and volcanic