Age Related Changes

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Age Related Changes by Mind Map: Age Related Changes

1. Respiratory System

1.1. Thicker and harder to expel mucus in the nasopharynx

1.1.1. Reduced secretions from the submucosal gland

1.1.1.1. Could cause a chronic tickle and cough

1.2. Hair in nostrils become thicker

1.2.1. Could interfere with normal inspiration of air if dust and debris get caught in the thicker hair

1.3. Trachea stiffens from calcification of cartilage

1.4. Reduced vital capacity and increase in residual volume

1.4.1. Lungs become smaller in size and weight

1.4.2. Respiration and ventilation weakens

1.4.2.1. Connective tissue weakens

1.4.3. Decreased elastic recoil during expiration

1.4.3.1. Less elastic collage and elastin

1.4.4. Less elastic alveoli with fewer functioning capillaries

1.4.5. Kyphosis and barrel chest

1.4.5.1. R/t loss of skeletal muscle strength in thorax and diaphragm

2. Gastrointestinal System

2.1. Tongue atrophy

2.1.1. Leading to decreased taste sensation

2.1.1.1. Xerostomia (dry mouth)

2.2. Decreased production of saliva

2.2.1. Could lead to dysphagia

2.3. Thinning of mucosa and weakening of the muscles for mastication

2.4. Presbyesophagus

2.4.1. Degenerative smooth muscle lining of the lower esophagus

2.4.1.1. Weaker esophageal contractions and sphincter

2.5. Decreased motility

2.5.1. Risk for indigestion and aspiration

2.6. Decreased stomach elasticity

2.6.1. Shows the need for nutrient rich calories rather than the need to increase calories

2.7. Increased risk of gastric irritation

2.7.1. Due to increased stomach pH from the decrease in HCl and Pepsin

2.7.1.1. Reduces absorption of protein

2.8. Less absorption of nutrients

2.8.1. Due to fewer cells on absorbing surface of intestinal walls

2.9. Constipation

2.9.1. From slower peristalsis, inactivity, reduced food/fluid intake, drugs, and low fiber diet

3. Cardiovascular System

3.1. Heart valves thicken and become more rigid

3.1.1. Due to sclerosis and fibrosis

3.2. Reduction in cardiac output when demands increase

3.2.1. Myocardial muscle becomes less efficient with less contractile strength

3.3. Dilated aorta

3.3.1. Causes slight ventricular hypertrophy and thickening of the left ventricular wall

3.4. Calcification and reduced elasticity of vessels

4. Genitourinary System

4.1. Urinary Frequnecy

4.1.1. Cause by hypertrophy of the bladder muscle, thickening of the bladder

4.1.1.1. Decreases ability of bladder to expand thus reducing capacity

4.2. Nocturia

4.2.1. Night time urinary frequency

4.3. Urinary Retention

4.3.1. Could be caused by fecal impaction in women or prostatic hypertrophy in men

4.3.1.1. Could lead to urinary tract infections

4.4. Kidney filtration efficiency decreases

4.4.1. Affects ability to eliminate drugs

4.4.1.1. Could lead to toxicity

4.5. Decreased tubular function

4.6. Reduced ability to concentrate and dilute urine

4.6.1. Decreased reabsorption from the filtrate

5. Reproductive System

5.1. Female

5.1.1. Atrophy of vulva, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries

5.1.2. Thinning of vaginal epithelium

5.1.3. Dryer/more alkaline vaginal environment

5.1.4. Mammary glands are replaced by fat tissue

5.1.4.1. Causes breasts sag and be less firm

5.2. Male

5.2.1. Reduction of sperm count

5.2.1.1. Thinning seminal vesicles, muscle tissues turns to connective tissue and decreased fluid retainment

5.2.2. Increased fibrosis, thickening of the basement membrane and narrowing of the lumen in seminiferous tubules

5.2.3. Atrophy of testes and decreased testicular mass

5.2.3.1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

5.2.3.1.1. Some prostate tissue is replaced with fibrotic tissue

6. Musculoskeltal System

6.1. Decline in the number and size of muscle fibers

6.2. Reduced flexibility of joints and muscles

6.2.1. Due to connective tissue changes

6.3. Reduction of muscle mass and body strenght

6.4. Sarcopenia – decline in walking speed or grip strength

6.4.1. Due to disease, immobility, decreased caloric intake, poor blood flow to muscle, mitochondrial dysfunction, decrease in anabolic hormones and increased in proinflammatory cytokines

6.5. Impaired muscle regeneration

6.5.1. ould lead to disability – esp. in those with diseases or organ impairment

6.6. Decreased bone mineral mass

6.7. diminished calcium absorption

6.8. Increased risk of fractures

7. Nervous System

7.1. Atrophy of the brain and spinal cord

7.1.1. Loss of nerve cell mass

7.2. Brain weight decreases

7.3. Number of nerve cells decline

7.3.1. They have fewer dendrites and some demyelination

7.3.1.1. Causes slower nerve conduction

7.4. Slower response, reaction times and weaker reflexes

7.5. Plaques, tangles and atrophy of the brain

7.6. Decreased cerebral blood flow

7.7. Verbal skills are maintained until about age 70

7.7.1. Unless underlying disease

7.8. Intellectual performance is maintained until about age 80

7.8.1. Unless underlying disease

8. Vision and Hearing

8.1. Eyes

8.1.1. Presbyopia

8.1.1.1. Reduced elasticity and stiffening of muscle fibers of the lens of the eye

8.1.2. Visual acuity progressively declines

8.1.2.1. Due to decreased pupil size and loss of photoreceptor cells in the retina

8.1.3. Light perception threshold decreases

8.1.3.1. Dark and light adaptation take longs

8.1.4. Eyes produce fewer tears and are dryer

8.2. Ears

8.2.1. Presbycusis

8.2.1.1. Reduces the ability to hear s, sh, f, ph, and w sounds and may distort speech

9. Endocrine System

9.1. Thyroid gland atrophies and decreases in activity

9.1.1. Lower basal metabolic rate

9.1.2. Reduced radioactive iodine uptake

9.1.3. Less secretion and release of thyrotropin

9.2. Diminished adrenal function

9.2.1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion decreases which decreases adrenal secretory activity

9.2.1.1. Decreases secretions of estrogen, progesterone, androgen, 17-ketosteroids and glucocorticoids

9.3. Insufficient release of insulin by beta cells and reduced tissue sensitivity to circulating insulin

9.4. Reduced ability to metabolize glucose

10. Integumentary System

10.1. Reduced thickness and vascularity of the dermis

10.1.1. Increased risk for tears, bruising, pressure injury and skin infections

10.2. Reduced rate of epidermal turnover

10.3. degeneration of elastic fibers

10.4. Reduction in melanocytes

11. Mental Health

11.1. Cognitive health is highly individualized based on personal resources, health status and experiences of life

11.2. Higher incidence of mental illness

11.3. Depression increases prevalence and intensity with age

12. Sleep and Rest

12.1. Insomnia

12.1.1. Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep and/or premature waking

12.1.1.1. Transient

12.1.1.1.1. Short term, problem associated with a changed environment, illness, added stress or anxiety

12.1.1.2. Chronic

12.1.1.2.1. Physical or mental illness, environmental factors, substance abuse, or medications

12.2. Daytime sleepiness

12.3. Napping

13. Physical Changes

13.1. Graying and thinning hair

13.2. Elongated ears

13.3. Wrinkles

13.4. Loss of subcutaneous fat

13.4.1. bony appearance

13.4.2. thinning skin

13.4.3. decline in natural insulation

13.5. Decrease in stature (approx. 2 in.)

13.5.1. Due to reduced hydration, loss of cartilage, thinning of vertebrae, curvature of spine - if present