Systems of the body

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Systems of the body by Mind Map: Systems of the body

1. Sensory

1.1. Vision

1.1.1. Normal effects from aging Presbyopia

1.1.2. Common abnormal effects Cataracts Retinopathy Glaucoma Macular Degeneration

1.2. Hearing

1.2.1. Normal effects from aging Presbycusis

1.2.2. Common abnormal effects Inner ear problems caused by Vascular disorders Viral infections Presbycusis Otosclerosis Tinnitus Infections

2. Immune System

2.1. Normal effects of aging

2.1.1. Thymus gland declines in size

2.1.2. Increased number of immature T cells

2.1.3. T-Cell function declines Reduced response to foreign antigens Decrease in cell-mediated and humoral immunity

2.1.4. Increased need for Immunologic Health promotion Immunizations Diet with specific nutrients Exercise Stress management

2.2. Common abnormal effects

2.2.1. Increased incidence of cancer

2.2.2. Increased infections have tendacy to have more profound consequences

2.2.3. Increased septicemia hospitalizations

2.2.4. delayed diagnosis of infections secondary to failure to seek help for atypical symptoms

2.2.5. Herpes Zoster Reactivation of latent varicella virus

2.2.6. Pneumonia One of leading causes of death in older adults

2.2.7. Influenza

3. Digestive System

3.1. Normal effects of aging

3.1.1. Atrophy of the tongue affects taste buds and decreases taste sensation

3.1.2. Saliva production decreases Swallowing may be difficult

3.1.3. Presbyesophagus results in weaker esophageal contractions and weakness of the sphincter

3.1.4. Esophageal and stomach motility decreases Risk for aspiration and indigestion

3.1.5. Decreased elasticity of the stomach Reduces the amount of food accommodation at one time

3.1.6. Stomach has higher pH as a result of decline in hydrochloric acid and Pepsin

3.1.7. Decline in hydrochloric acid Increase in incidence of gastric irritation Interferes with absorption of calcium, iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12

3.1.8. Decline in pepsin Interferes with absorption of protein

3.1.9. Fewer cells on absorbing surface of intestinal wall impact the absorption of dextrose, xylose, and vitamins B and D

3.1.10. Slower peristalsis, inactivity, reduced food/fluid intake, drugs, and low fiber diet Increase in the risk of constipation

3.1.11. Sensory perception decreases May lead to constipation or incomplete emptying of the bowel

3.1.12. Bile salt synthesis decreases Increase in the risk of gallstone development

3.1.13. Pancreas changes Affects digestion of fats

3.2. Common abnormal effects

3.2.1. Dysphagia

3.2.2. GERD

3.2.3. Dry mouth Xerostomia

3.2.4. Peptic Ulcer disease

3.2.5. Cancer Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the stomach

3.2.6. Bowel Incontinence

3.2.7. Fecal Impaction

4. Reproductive System

4.1. Normal effects of aging

4.1.1. Menopause Vaginal epithelium thins cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes atrophy vaginal canal changes less lubrication prodced shortening and narrowing of the canal Breasts sag and are less firm

4.1.2. Andropause Seminal vesicles develop thinner epithelium Muscle tissue replaced with connective tissue Decreased capacity to retain fluids Seminiferous tubule changes ‣ Increased fibrosis, epithelium thinning, thickening of the basement membrane, narrowing of the lumen Atrophy of the testes and reduction in testicular mass Ejaculation fluid contains less live sperm More time required to achieve an erection Enlargement of the prostate gland

4.2. Common abnormal effects

4.2.1. Male Prostate Cancer Erectile dysfunction Benign Prostatic Hyerplasia

4.2.2. Female Cervical Cancer Breast Cancer Ovarian Cancer Atrophic Vaginitis

5. Neurological

5.1. Normal effects from aging

5.1.1. loss of nerve cell mass causes some atrophy of the brain and spinal cord. which slows response and reaction times

5.1.2. Intellectual performance is maintained with a slowing in processing times around age 80

5.1.3. After 70 verbal skills show a gradual reduction.

5.2. common abnormal effects

5.2.1. Parkison's disease occurs when neurons that produce dopamine in the substantia nigra die or become impaired. Dyskinesia - tremors Muscle rigidity and weakness dysphagia

5.2.2. Alzheimer's Disease

5.2.3. Transiet Ischemic Attacks

5.2.4. Cerebrovascular Accident

6. Muskuloskeletal

6.1. Normal effects of aging

6.1.1. Decline in size and number of muscle fibers, and reduction in muscle mass ‣ Decreased body strength ‣ Endurance declines

6.1.2. Connective tissue changes ‣ Reduced flexibility of joints and muscles

6.1.3. Sarcopenia ‣ Age-related reduction of muscle mass or function resulting from a reduction in protein synthesis and an increase in muscle protein degeneration ๏ Can lead to disability

6.2. Common abnormal effects

6.2.1. Osteoporosis

6.2.2. Rheumatoid Arthritis

6.2.3. Fractures Brittle bones fracture more easily and heal at a slower rate Potential for complications associated with immobility

6.2.4. Osteoarthritis

7. Endocrine

7.1. Normal effects of aging

7.1.1. Thyroid gland atrophies

7.1.2. diminished adrenal function

7.1.3. ACTH secretion decreases

7.1.4. Insufficient release of insulin and reduced tissue sensitivity to circulating insulin

7.2. Common abnormal effects

7.2.1. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Neuropathies Retinopathy Coronary artery disease Urinary tract infections

7.2.2. Hypothyroidism

7.2.3. Pancreatic Cancer

8. Integumentary

8.1. Normal effects of aging

8.1.1. Flattening of the dermal‒epidermal junction

8.1.2. Reduced thickness and vascularity of the dermis

8.1.3. Reduction of epidermal turnover

8.1.4. Degeneration of elastic fibers

8.1.5. Increased coarseness of collagen

8.1.6. Reduction in melanocytes

8.1.7. Atrophy of hair bulbs and decline in the rate of hair and nail growth

8.1.8. Increased fragility of the skin

8.1.9. Changes potentially affecting body image, self-concept, reactions from others, socialization, and other psychosocial factors

8.2. Common abnormal effects

8.2.1. Pruritus

8.2.2. Skin Cancer

8.2.3. Stasis Dermatitis

8.2.4. Pressure Ulcers

9. Respiratory

9.1. Normal effects of aging

9.1.1. Changes occur in upper airway paths, nose, and trachea

9.1.2. Reduce cough

9.1.3. Lungs reduce in size and weight

9.1.4. Decreased elastic recoil

9.1.5. Alveoli less elastic

9.1.6. Reduction in vital capacity; increase residual volume

9.1.7. Loose or brittle teeth can be aspired

9.2. Common abnormal effects

9.2.1. Asthma

9.2.2. Chronic bronchitis Causes persistent, productive cough; wheezing; recurrent respiratory infections; shortness of breath

9.2.3. Emphysema

9.2.4. Lung cancer

9.2.5. Pnuemonia

10. Cardiovascular

10.1. Normal effects of aging

10.1.1. Heart valves become thicker and rigid

10.1.2. Aorta becomes dialted sligth ventricular hypertrophy Thickening of left ventricular wall

10.1.3. Myocardial muscle less efficient decreased Cardiac output decreased contractile strength

10.1.4. Calcification, reduced elasticity of vessels

10.1.5. Less sensitive to baroreceptor regulation of blood pressure

10.2. Common abnormal effects

10.2.1. Hypertension

10.2.2. Congestive Heart failure CHF Incidence increases with age Leading cause of hospitalization Complication of arteriosclerotic heart disease Coronary artery disease responsible for most

10.2.3. Coronary artery disease Ischemic heart disease Prevalence increase with age Angina ‣ Atypical presentation: coughing, syncope, sweating, and confusion ‣ Nitroglycerin effective ‣ Education Myocardial infarction

10.2.4. hyperlipidemia

10.2.5. Arrhythmias

10.2.6. Peripheral vascular disease Arteriosclerosis: common especially among those with diabetes Affects smaller vessels furthest from heart

11. Renal

11.1. Normal effects of aging

11.1.1. Hypertrophy and thickening of the bladder muscle o Decreases bladder ability to expand o Reduces storage capacity  Daytime urinary frequency  Nocturia

11.1.2. Changes in cortical control of micturition o Nocturia

11.1.3. Inefficient neurological control of bladder emptying and weaker bladder muscle o Retention of large volumes of urine  Female: fecal impaction  Male: prostatic hypertrophy

11.1.4. Kidney filtration ability decreases o Affects the ability to eliminate drugs  Potential for adverse drug reactions

11.1.5. Reduced renal function o High blood urea nitrogen levels

11.1.6. Decreased tubular function o Concentration of urine changes in response to water and/or sodium excess/depletion

11.1.7. Increase in renal threshold for glucose o False-negative results for glucose in the urine without symptoms

11.2. Common abnormal effects

11.2.1. Urinary incontinence

11.2.2. Bladder Caner

11.2.3. Renal Caliculi

11.2.4. Glomerulonephritis