Systems of the body

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Systems of the body by Mind Map: Systems of the body

1. Sensory

1.1. Vision

1.1.1. Normal effects from aging

1.1.1.1. Presbyopia

1.1.2. Common abnormal effects

1.1.2.1. Cataracts

1.1.2.2. Retinopathy

1.1.2.3. Glaucoma

1.1.2.4. Macular Degeneration

1.2. Hearing

1.2.1. Normal effects from aging

1.2.1.1. Presbycusis

1.2.2. Common abnormal effects

1.2.2.1. Inner ear problems caused by

1.2.2.1.1. Vascular disorders

1.2.2.1.2. Viral infections

1.2.2.2. Presbycusis

1.2.2.3. Otosclerosis

1.2.2.4. Tinnitus

1.2.2.5. Infections

2. Neurological

2.1. Normal effects from aging

2.1.1. loss of nerve cell mass causes some atrophy of the brain and spinal cord. which slows response and reaction times

2.1.2. Intellectual performance is maintained with a slowing in processing times around age 80

2.1.3. After 70 verbal skills show a gradual reduction.

2.2. common abnormal effects

2.2.1. Parkison's disease occurs when neurons that produce dopamine in the substantia nigra die or become impaired.

2.2.1.1. Dyskinesia - tremors

2.2.1.2. Muscle rigidity and weakness

2.2.1.3. dysphagia

2.2.2. Alzheimer's Disease

2.2.3. Transiet Ischemic Attacks

2.2.4. Cerebrovascular Accident

3. Muskuloskeletal

3.1. Normal effects of aging

3.1.1. Decline in size and number of muscle fibers, and reduction in muscle mass

3.1.1.1. ‣ Decreased body strength

3.1.1.2. ‣ Endurance declines

3.1.2. Connective tissue changes

3.1.2.1. ‣ Reduced flexibility of joints and muscles

3.1.3. Sarcopenia

3.1.3.1. ‣ Age-related reduction of muscle mass or function resulting from a reduction in protein synthesis and an increase in muscle protein degeneration

3.1.3.1.1. ๏ Can lead to disability

3.2. Common abnormal effects

3.2.1. Osteoporosis

3.2.2. Rheumatoid Arthritis

3.2.3. Fractures

3.2.3.1. Brittle bones fracture more easily and heal at a slower rate

3.2.3.2. Potential for complications associated with immobility

3.2.4. Osteoarthritis

4. Endocrine

4.1. Normal effects of aging

4.1.1. Thyroid gland atrophies

4.1.2. diminished adrenal function

4.1.3. ACTH secretion decreases

4.1.4. Insufficient release of insulin and reduced tissue sensitivity to circulating insulin

4.2. Common abnormal effects

4.2.1. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

4.2.1.1. Neuropathies

4.2.1.2. Retinopathy

4.2.1.3. Coronary artery disease

4.2.1.4. Urinary tract infections

4.2.2. Hypothyroidism

4.2.3. Pancreatic Cancer

5. Immune System

5.1. Normal effects of aging

5.1.1. Thymus gland declines in size

5.1.2. Increased number of immature T cells

5.1.3. T-Cell function declines

5.1.3.1. Reduced response to foreign antigens

5.1.3.2. Decrease in cell-mediated and humoral immunity

5.1.4. Increased need for Immunologic Health promotion

5.1.4.1. Immunizations

5.1.4.2. Diet with specific nutrients

5.1.4.3. Exercise

5.1.4.4. Stress management

5.2. Common abnormal effects

5.2.1. Increased incidence of cancer

5.2.2. Increased infections have tendacy to have more profound consequences

5.2.3. Increased septicemia hospitalizations

5.2.4. delayed diagnosis of infections secondary to failure to seek help for atypical symptoms

5.2.5. Herpes Zoster

5.2.5.1. Reactivation of latent varicella virus

5.2.6. Pneumonia

5.2.6.1. One of leading causes of death in older adults

5.2.7. Influenza

6. Integumentary

6.1. Normal effects of aging

6.1.1. Flattening of the dermal‒epidermal junction

6.1.2. Reduced thickness and vascularity of the dermis

6.1.3. Reduction of epidermal turnover

6.1.4. Degeneration of elastic fibers

6.1.5. Increased coarseness of collagen

6.1.6. Reduction in melanocytes

6.1.7. Atrophy of hair bulbs and decline in the rate of hair and nail growth

6.1.8. Increased fragility of the skin

6.1.9. Changes potentially affecting body image, self-concept, reactions from others, socialization, and other psychosocial factors

6.2. Common abnormal effects

6.2.1. Pruritus

6.2.2. Skin Cancer

6.2.3. Stasis Dermatitis

6.2.4. Pressure Ulcers

7. Respiratory

7.1. Normal effects of aging

7.1.1. Changes occur in upper airway paths, nose, and trachea

7.1.2. Reduce cough

7.1.3. Lungs reduce in size and weight

7.1.4. Decreased elastic recoil

7.1.5. Alveoli less elastic

7.1.6. Reduction in vital capacity; increase residual volume

7.1.7. Loose or brittle teeth can be aspired

7.2. Common abnormal effects

7.2.1. Asthma

7.2.2. Chronic bronchitis

7.2.2.1. Causes persistent, productive cough; wheezing; recurrent respiratory infections; shortness of breath

7.2.3. Emphysema

7.2.4. Lung cancer

7.2.5. Pnuemonia

8. Cardiovascular

8.1. Normal effects of aging

8.1.1. Heart valves become thicker and rigid

8.1.2. Aorta becomes dialted

8.1.2.1. sligth ventricular hypertrophy

8.1.2.2. Thickening of left ventricular wall

8.1.3. Myocardial muscle less efficient

8.1.3.1. decreased Cardiac output

8.1.3.2. decreased contractile strength

8.1.4. Calcification, reduced elasticity of vessels

8.1.5. Less sensitive to baroreceptor regulation of blood pressure

8.2. Common abnormal effects

8.2.1. Hypertension

8.2.2. Congestive Heart failure CHF

8.2.2.1. Incidence increases with age

8.2.2.2. Leading cause of hospitalization

8.2.2.3. Complication of arteriosclerotic heart disease

8.2.2.4. Coronary artery disease responsible for most

8.2.3. Coronary artery disease

8.2.3.1. Ischemic heart disease

8.2.3.2. Prevalence increase with age

8.2.3.3. Angina

8.2.3.4. ‣ Atypical presentation: coughing, syncope, sweating, and confusion

8.2.3.5. ‣ Nitroglycerin effective

8.2.3.6. ‣ Education

8.2.3.7. Myocardial infarction

8.2.4. hyperlipidemia

8.2.5. Arrhythmias

8.2.6. Peripheral vascular disease

8.2.6.1. Arteriosclerosis: common especially among those with diabetes

8.2.6.2. Affects smaller vessels furthest from heart

9. Digestive System

9.1. Normal effects of aging

9.1.1. Atrophy of the tongue affects taste buds and decreases taste sensation

9.1.2. Saliva production decreases

9.1.2.1. Swallowing may be difficult

9.1.3. Presbyesophagus results in weaker esophageal contractions and weakness of the sphincter

9.1.4. Esophageal and stomach motility decreases

9.1.4.1. Risk for aspiration and indigestion

9.1.5. Decreased elasticity of the stomach

9.1.5.1. Reduces the amount of food accommodation at one time

9.1.6. Stomach has higher pH as a result of decline in hydrochloric acid and Pepsin

9.1.7. Decline in hydrochloric acid

9.1.7.1. Increase in incidence of gastric irritation

9.1.7.2. Interferes with absorption of calcium, iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12

9.1.8. Decline in pepsin

9.1.8.1. Interferes with absorption of protein

9.1.9. Fewer cells on absorbing surface of intestinal wall impact the absorption of dextrose, xylose, and vitamins B and D

9.1.10. Slower peristalsis, inactivity, reduced food/fluid intake, drugs, and low fiber diet

9.1.10.1. Increase in the risk of constipation

9.1.11. Sensory perception decreases

9.1.11.1. May lead to constipation or incomplete emptying of the bowel

9.1.12. Bile salt synthesis decreases

9.1.12.1. Increase in the risk of gallstone development

9.1.13. Pancreas changes

9.1.13.1. Affects digestion of fats

9.2. Common abnormal effects

9.2.1. Dysphagia

9.2.2. GERD

9.2.3. Dry mouth Xerostomia

9.2.4. Peptic Ulcer disease

9.2.5. Cancer

9.2.5.1. Colorectal Cancer

9.2.5.2. Cancer of the stomach

9.2.6. Bowel Incontinence

9.2.7. Fecal Impaction

10. Renal

10.1. Normal effects of aging

10.1.1. Hypertrophy and thickening of the bladder muscle

10.1.1.1. o Decreases bladder ability to expand

10.1.1.2. o Reduces storage capacity

10.1.1.2.1.  Daytime urinary frequency

10.1.1.2.2.  Nocturia

10.1.2. Changes in cortical control of micturition

10.1.2.1. o Nocturia

10.1.3. Inefficient neurological control of bladder emptying and weaker bladder muscle

10.1.3.1. o Retention of large volumes of urine

10.1.3.1.1.  Female: fecal impaction

10.1.3.1.2.  Male: prostatic hypertrophy

10.1.4. Kidney filtration ability decreases

10.1.4.1. o Affects the ability to eliminate drugs

10.1.4.1.1.  Potential for adverse drug reactions

10.1.5. Reduced renal function

10.1.5.1. o High blood urea nitrogen levels

10.1.6. Decreased tubular function

10.1.6.1. o Concentration of urine changes in response to water and/or sodium excess/depletion

10.1.7. Increase in renal threshold for glucose

10.1.7.1. o False-negative results for glucose in the urine without symptoms

10.2. Common abnormal effects

10.2.1. Urinary incontinence

10.2.2. Bladder Caner

10.2.3. Renal Caliculi

10.2.4. Glomerulonephritis

11. Reproductive System

11.1. Normal effects of aging

11.1.1. Menopause

11.1.1.1. Vaginal epithelium thins

11.1.1.2. cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes atrophy

11.1.1.3. vaginal canal changes

11.1.1.3.1. less lubrication prodced

11.1.1.3.2. shortening and narrowing of the canal

11.1.1.4. Breasts sag and are less firm

11.1.2. Andropause

11.1.2.1. Seminal vesicles develop thinner epithelium

11.1.2.2. Muscle tissue replaced with connective tissue

11.1.2.3. Decreased capacity to retain fluids

11.1.2.4. Seminiferous tubule changes

11.1.2.4.1. ‣ Increased fibrosis, epithelium thinning,

11.1.2.4.2. thickening of the basement membrane,

11.1.2.4.3. narrowing of the lumen

11.1.2.5. Atrophy of the testes and reduction in testicular mass

11.1.2.6. Ejaculation fluid contains less live sperm

11.1.2.7. More time required to achieve an erection

11.1.2.8. Enlargement of the prostate gland

11.2. Common abnormal effects

11.2.1. Male

11.2.1.1. Prostate Cancer

11.2.1.2. Erectile dysfunction

11.2.1.3. Benign Prostatic Hyerplasia

11.2.2. Female

11.2.2.1. Cervical Cancer

11.2.2.2. Breast Cancer

11.2.2.3. Ovarian Cancer

11.2.2.4. Atrophic Vaginitis